Discuss psychological explanations of two or more forms of institutional aggression
Institutional aggression can be divided into two basic variations. These are between or within groups.
IA within groups can be explained with the importation and deprivation models. The importation model suggests that individuals bring their own behavioural coping mechanisms into the institutionalised environment and present them as a result to stressful surroundings and these influence their adaptation to this environment. For example an aggressive person in a prison will deal with situations in there with aggressive social mechanisms. Irwin and cressey (62) cited the example of prisons stating that an inmate will bring his own aggressive traits in as a coping mechanism. Harer and Steffenmeister support the importation model with research, observing a correlation between race habit on the outside compared with the inside of prison institutions, relating violence to blacks and drug behaviour to whites. This however can be criticised for being reductionist, as not all blacks are aggressive and not all whites are drug users, just as both races can partake in both behaviours. The findings appear to determine no new findings, they are simply correlational. The behaviours may not have been imported as a coping mechanism, but simply because that is the way these people behave wherever they are. This research is also difficult to generalise as it concerns only males in US prisons. This leads into a criticism of the research for gender bias. The theory may however be applicable in other environments where an individual is new to it. There is also nothing to say that the importation model itself is exclusive to males only.
The alternative is the deprivation model. Argued by Paterline and Peterson, this model suggests that as an inmate is institutionalised, they are deprived of basic human living qualities that people normally enjoy such as their privacy. This among other things such...