Discuss Issues Surrounding the Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia Essay

1429 WordsMar 1, 20156 Pages
The biological model is the dominant approach to explaining and treating mental illness. This approach assumes that mental illness can be classified and diagnosed. There are two systems widely used in psychiatry; the International Classification System for Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The ICD was developed in Europe and the DSM was developed in America. The manuals are frequently revised and it has recently been updated to DSM V. There are five different types of schizophrenia; paranoid, disorganised, catatonic, residual and undifferentiated. The paranoid type believe people are plotting against them, are anxious, suffer from delusions, are suspicious of people and they respond to medication. The disorganised type is the silly mind and they suffer from the ‘flat effect’ which is a monotone voice and disorganised speech and behaviour. The catatonic type is when a person has problems with their motor movements; either uncontrollable motor movement or being stood like a statue and mute. The residual type is a milder form of schizophrenia and symptoms are reduced in number and intensity. The undifferentiated type is people who don’t fall into any of these categories. DSM V has got rid of all of the subtypes apart from catatonic behaviour. However, ICD and DSM diagnose in different ways. The DSM says that characteristics of schizophrenia must be present in a person for 6 months for a diagnosis of schizophrenia but the ICD states the most important symptoms be present for only one month. Characteristics include positive symptoms which are an excess of functioning such as persistent delusions. Negative symptoms are those which take away from functioning such as a lack of emotional response. the benefits of using a classification system are that people can seek suitable medication and treatment once they have been
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