These tides were largely responsible for the 8,000 deaths attributed to the storm ("Hurricanes In History", n.d.). Disasters from hurricanes are affected by both surface and deep ocean currents. Tropical oceans typically have warmer fresher water toward the surface with colder saltier water below. The layer in which these waters transition from warm to cold is called the thermocline. When a hurricane comes through it mixes everything up allowing colder saltier water at the surface, and warmer fresher water down below.
Next, global warming affects to the failure global food production. It means that climate change is expected to influence on crop and livestock production, and other components of agricultural systems. For example, livestock and crop yields are directly affected by climatic factors such as temperature and the extreme events like floods, droughts and wind storms. Another effect of global warming is that it's harmful to coral reef which is a kind of coral that are colorful underwater forests and it can act as a natural protective barrier for coastal regions and be the home to over 25% of all marine life. According to the documentary of National Wildlife Federation, it shows that 16 percent of the world's coral reefs were wiped out in only one year because of the higher temperatures in the sea.
More humid and wet environments are found in montane cloud forests, elfin woodlands, and marsh forests; these environments are found where trade winds occur (this would be in high Caribbean mountains). In areas such as lagoons and rivers, one may find permanent dark water swamps that lead to extensive mangrove forests; these are the moister areas of the Caribbean. The different ecosystems offered by the Caribbean are also found in their sea, a large amount of coral reefs can be found in the beautiful Caribbean sea, these are however a very fragile ecosystem. They cover about 50,000 km2 of the Caribbean Sea; they are very fragile because when its waters exceed the temperature of 29
Drought is a multi-causal and complex environmental issue, and can have serious socioeconomic consequences. Recently, IPCC (the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) in Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) concluded that South Asia and the Middle East would experience sever, prolonged droughts as a result of global climate changes, explicitly the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007). Drought is a weather-related natural disaster whose effect is aggravated by human activities. Sometime drought affects large regions and even several countries for a long period of time. Drought has a serious impact on food productivity of a land, and even on the life expectancy of inhabitants.
Ten years ago a typical New Zealand summer would be warm and dry, with camping a popular summertime activity. The summer of 2010/2011 has been marred by flooding and cyclones. Campers around Nelson were evacuated just before New Year due to flooding and the state of Queensland, in Australia, was also subject to several weeks of flooding. In the past two weeks cyclones Yasi and Zaka have brought strong hot winds, high temperatures and humidity, followed by a sudden drop in temperatures. Global warming is not only causing this havoc with our weather conditions, it is the reason why our weather also changes so frequently.
They offer several specific environments which create and keep the biodiversity. Rainforests are also decisive in the climate situation by regulating gases in the atmosphere and protecting the environment from desertification. The importance of these elements which create an intense and critical debate, would support in the improvement of the deforestation problems. The valuable ecosystems are the most threatened on the Earth. Recent FAO statistics show that each day at least 85,000 acres of forest disappear with several hundred species.
In Nigeria, this means that some stable ecosystems such as the Sahel Savanna may become vulnerable because warming will reinforce existing patterns of water scarcity and increasing the risk of drought in Nigeria and indeed most countries in West Africa. As well, the country’s aquatic ecosystems, wetlands and other habitats will create overwhelming problems for an already impoverished populace. Preliminary studies on the vulnerability of various sectors of the Nigerian economy to Climate Change were conducted by NEST. The sectors evaluated were based on seven natural and human systems identified by the IPCC, and condensed into five. They are: • Human settlements and health; • Water resources, wetlands, and freshwater ecosystems; • Energy, industry, commerce, and financial services; • Agriculture, food security, land degradation, forestry, and biodiversity; and • Coastal zone and marine ecosystems.
The precipitation can fall in the form of rain or snow, with snow becoming more likely at higher elevations. The average annual temperature is above 0� C, largely influenced by the nearby ocean. The warmest of the temperate rainforests may have average annual temperatures around 20� C. Plants- Indian Paintbrush – Castilleja, Bigleaf Maple - Acer macrophyllum Animals- Banana Slug, Ariolimax columbianus, Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana, Blue grouse - Dendragapus obscurus timber cutting is the number one threat to these forests, The silt, and the nutrients and pollutants it carries, are a threat to near shore marine organisms as well as freshwater organisms in the river itself, and the area the silt is coming from Temperate Deciduous Forest Location – North America, western Europe, China, Japan, Korea Australia The latitude range is anywhere from 23 ° north to 38 ° south. Most deciduous forests have mild summers averaging about 70 °F. Winter temperatures are fairly cool with an average temperature of a little below freezing.
Water Scarcity and Deforestation: Two Environmental Problems in Sub-Saharan Africa Introduction Water scarcity and deforestation are two of the most serious environmental problems facing inhabitants within Sub-Saharan Africa. Each of these environmental challenges produces wide-ranging effects upon the region. Water scarcity, particularly the availability of clean fresh water, impairs the performance of local sanitation systems and local agriculture, which results in regional food shortages. Deforestation contributes to soil erosion, which prevents the success of local agriculture and causes food shortages. Deforestation is also the direct cause of biodiversity loss through habitat destruction.
Because salt water is below fresh water over pumping the aquifers will cause the saltwater to raise closer to the top infecting the main fresh water source in a process called saltwater intrusion. Water reuse from many people upstream has an impact to many people living along the lower banks of the rivers because that causes people living upstream to release dirty and undrinkable water back for other people to use. Also it is normal for many Industrial factories to reuse water. That process has a health issue because many people along the banks of the river reusing some of the untreated and dirty water can possible get sick because of the many diseases causing organisms. The combustion to fossil fuel causes sulfur and nitro oxides into the atmosphere and the process crates acid rain.