Trace decay theory states forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of this memory trace in the brain. The theory is based upon the limited duration of STM and tries to explain why forgetting increases with time – unless the information is passed onto LTM via rehearsal it will decay over a very short period of time (15-30 seconds). Trace decay theory provides a simple explanation of forgetting from STM. It seems plausible to suggest that information may decay from memory as time passes unless it is processed/rehearsed in some way. However, trace decay theory is very difficult to test.
Describe and Evaluate the Theory of Trace Decay This theory suggests short term memory can only hold information for between 15 and 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed. After this time the information decays (fades away). This explanation of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/or chemical change in the nervous system. Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace.
Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model The working memory model (WM) explains why we can do two different tasks at the same time, but not two similar tasks. It replaced the idea of a unitary short term memory (STM) In the working memory model information is passed from STM to the central executive and this decides if the information is visual or auditaory. Information is then passed to the corrersponding store. The central executive is a key componant of the WM. It directs information from STM to one of the "slave systems" It also has a very limited capacity and duration so can't attend to too many things at once.
From short term memory to long term memory rehearsal was needed otherwise it would not be entered. Sensory memory is divided into the 5 senses, Iconic, Echoic, Gustatory, Olfactory and Haptic. In sensory memory the information is stored for 1-2 seconds approximately and if it is not given attention it decays. Short term memory lasts for about 30 seconds and can hold around 7 + or – 2 items. If this information is not rehearsed then it will decay and not be entered into long term memory.
Because of the limited capacity of the STM, words from the middle of the list are thought to be lost completely or unavailable for recall. Case Study of K.F. - Shallice & Warrington (1970) I think that this study proves that the different parts of the multi-store model can be damaged separately because K.F's LTM was unaffected by the motorbike accident while his STM was severely damaged. Case Study of H.M. - Milner et al (1978) This study also supports the theory that the multi-store model can be affected as individual parts because while H.M's STM and LTM both worked almost normally, he lost the ability to transfer the information from the STM to the LTM, however he could recall information from the LTM to the
He states neurological based ADHD will most often decrease after the trauma and onset of symptoms, (Halgin, 2009). He states emotional ADHD tends to worsen as a child grows into adulthood. Wright is of the opinion that training a child in areas of deficiency will decrease symptoms. For instance if a child has poor reading skills, remedial training in reading will aid in decreasing symptoms, (Halgin, 2009). What are some of the strengths associated with the Pro side of the issue?
The fourth component is the episodic buffer which holds visual and acoustic information from other components. This is also able to take information from the long term memory and this component was only added in 2000 when Baddely found out that amnesia patients couldn’t store of recall stories from their short term memory. The working memory model has been supported and evaluated by Baddely. He used a tracker task and participants had to follow a moving spot of light as well as looking at a capital ‘F’. He found that participants found simultaneous tracking and imagery hard to do, but they were able to do it with a visual task.
Brass and Burkhardt (1993) coincide that their study is limited. They cautioning the readers or others investigator to not generalize their study’s results to other organizations; due to the flexible environment in the organization examined. Another limitation is the quantity of mechanical and interactive variables that could essentially be involved. Thus, they did not have comprehensive lists of any possible foundations of authority or tactical actions. Brass and Burkhardt (1993), suggested upcoming investigation covering the study at both the micro and macro stages of examination.
Strength / Weakness - research that is in the form of naturally occurring phenomena (Roberts and Lamb) has good ecological validity but is not scientific or replicable as variables were not highly controlled and because it is not artificial. It would also be unethical to test eye witness testimony when a real sensitive subject is being discussed. Strength / Weakness - the results could be due to a number of factors such as: young people may be more used to memory tests or older adults have poorer health leading to memory impairment. Weakness - the research findings are inconclusive. Weakness - the factors given by researchers, such as the ones stated, are only assumptions with no scientific evidence.
I took the canaster off and emptied it and when I was putting it back together I found that one of the connections were not connected ..i thought that that’s what the problem was because the analyzer worked for a while…but the problem started again. It turned out to be something that was beyond my scope of fixing. The company had to be called to come in and evaluate and fix the problem. Tell us about a time when u had to make a complex decision within a very limited time frame and/or with less than perfect information. What factors did u include in ur decision?