These side effects may affect one person but not another. This would be hard to study as you can not say it is exactly one thing, and then you would have to look at the extraneous variables which affect each problem. However, this could also be good as it is not really being reductionist in its own approach; it is looking at all the possible individual differences. If choosing a different approach, like cognitive, then it would still be difficult because you do not know what the person is thinking. You would have to rely on the patient giving you the information for it not is socially desirable or have demand characteristics.
Eyewitness Testimony Essay There are many factors that contribute to the accuracy of an eyewitness’ testimony in a court case, resulting in the failure of memory. These factors can include the observer’s state of mind, their expectations, their focus of attention at the time, the suddenness and stressfulness of the situation, and differences in the race or age of the witness and the accused. Memory is a selective and constructive process. Old elements of the memory can fade or be lost, while new elements are unconsciously selected and mixed into a recollection until it constructs a completely different story, and the witness it not even aware of the fact. When an onlooker witnesses a crime, the information they take in will first be sent to their sensory memory in its ‘raw’ form.
Assess the strengths and limitations of unstructured interviews for investigating the effects of streaming Unstructured interviews have advantages and disadvantages and as a qualitative method they are expressed through words and relay peoples thoughts and feelings. Unstructured interviews are interviews that don't have certain questions meaning its more free and relaxed. They give us a clear understanding of the interviewees because we use their answers to help us figure out the next set of questions, therefore becoming more appropriate and relevant. However, using unstructured interviews can also cause problems, for example, they take a long time to conduct. When looking at the advantages and disadvantages of using unstructured interviews to investigate streaming, we need to look at how this can effect the pupils.
He was interested in studying memory under strict scientific conditions and by greatly simplifying his research he was able to point out some distinctive elements of Human memory which before were unknown (Baddeley, 1997). Developments since then have been numerous for example theories of hypothetical memory systems have been produced which have seen considerable support. Atkinson and Shriffin’s multi-store model (1968) shares some similarities with the Working memory Model introduced by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974, which are two examples of these hypothetical models. The focus of this essay will be the Working memory Model. A point about the dual- task method will also be mentioned as it is a research method of vital importance to the model itself.
The personal construct theory is a critical social approach, a protest theory in reaction to psychometric and the experimental tradition (Butt, 2007). My proposal is that the personal construct theory was able to produce knowledge of individual differences in people’s lived experience that psychometric tests and scientific tradition were unable to excess. Since personal construct theory’s is a reaction to the scientific methodologies on individual differences, it is important for this study to firstly discuss cognitive social, trait theories and psychometric testing. The experimental tradition was
Evidence and Sentencing Mark Passi CJA 204 January 25, 2012 Ray Rawlins A presiding judge in a court of law is to make sure constitutional rights of the accused are protected during trial proceedings. A conviction by a court jury of the defendant will give the judge authority to impose reasonable punishment based upon the severity of the crime committed. The goal of “retribution” to a convicted person has changed throughout history of the criminal justice system. It is important to give a well deserve punishment for the severity of the crime. This sentencing goal is critical due to the fact that different state has different sentencing laws.
Bartlett’s theory of reconstructive memory suggests that recall of information is subject to the personal interpretation which is dependent on one’s cultural norms and values. Bartlett’s theory therefore shows that memory is not necessarily reliable as information could not be retrieved the same way it was encoded. In other words, schemas enable us to store the central meaning or gist of new information without necessarily remembering the precise details (Hill, G. 2001). Bartlett (1932) also suggested that memories are influenced by schemas as people organize and store information in a way that makes sense to them. Therefore, schemas are able to distort unfamiliar information in order to fit it to with the existing knowledge and expectations hence, resulting in unreliable
Remembering some aspects of experience leads, by association, to other, but the sequence cannot be predicted and may seem confused to a listener. Cognitive interviewing is designed to facilitate accurate recall through a set of instructions. There are four basic principles, according to Fisher et al. (1989). Event-interviewing similarity Memory of an event such as a crime is enhanced when the psychological environment at the interview is similar to the environment at the original event.
Scientific reasoning is the process, which provides evidence for scientific theory. Induction is common throughout scientific reasoning since scientists’ use inductive reasoning whenever a limited data is used to form more general conclusions (Okasha, 2002). Induction is used to decide whether claims about the world are justified. Inductive reasoning is prevalent throughout science since it is common to have a sample size that does not include all of the possible test subjects needed for the study. This leaves the possibility that one of the test subjects not included in the sample could prove the conclusion to be incorrect.
As the text states, it started with a concern for, “…explaining the processes of thought by using the technique of introspection (i.e., self-reflection)” (Wickens, 2005). Since self-reflection is biased then there had to be a more investigational method, conceivably, a method where the information could be observed and recorded. Psychology has become more about the study of behavior and mental phenomena, whereas, biopsychology is about the study of the brain and how it relates to behaviors. In my paper I will identify some of the important theorists that are associated with biological psychology and describe the relationship between biological psychology and other fields of psychology and neuroscience. I will also describe the major underlying assumptions of a biopsychological approach.