Differentiating Strategies for Children with Mental Retardation

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Normally presenting at birth or developing early in life, mental retardation is a developmental disability that is marked by below-normal intelligence and limited daily living skills. Individuals with this type of disability mature at a below average rate and experience unusual difficulty in learning, which leads to considerable problems in adapting to everyday life. Categorized by timing, mental retardation can be caused by many factors before, during, and after the child is born. Genetic disorder such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and PKU are the three most common inborn causes. It cannot be denied that the daily choices a pregnant woman makes may affect the mental health of her fetus. Prenatal problems that include excessive drinking, drug abuse, and smoking during pregnancy, as well as exposure to other harmful chemicals such as pollutants and heavy metals in early pregnancy, may cause mental retardation in the fetus as well. Being considered as perinatal problems, complications of pregnancy, premature birth, very low birth weight, difficult delivery, birth drama, and unusual stress on the head and lack of oxygen during birth are often associated with mental retardation. Finally, postnatal problems tend to involve with numerous outside factors that include environmental, social, and behavioral issues. Brain infections, head injury, physical injuries, and near drowning in childhood can damage the brain of a growing child, which have found to be related to mental retardation more or less. In addition, poverty, malnutrition, unhealthy living conditions, inadequate medical care, and cultural deprivation may all increase a child’s risk for this condition, since children who are neglected or abused often do not develop normally. It has to be mentioned that some findings related to the educational background of parent suggest that younger mothers with 12 years
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