However, not only just the pupils are labelled, the knowledge they are taught can also be labelled. Nell Keddie (1971) found, both pupils and knowledge can be labelled as high or low status. Moreover, streaming separates pupils into different ability groups that are taught separate things for all subjects. Studies show that the self-fulfilling prophecy is most likely to occur when children are streamed. Working class pupils tend to be labelled negatively and teachers tend to see them as lacking ability and therefore have low expectations of them hence they will be in the lower stream.
Difficulty with reading and writing If a child is having problems with reading and writing this could cause concern. This could be recognised, as a child would be at a delayed rate to the rest of his/her peers. This could affect the child’s /young person’s behaviour/social development...Low self esteem and loss of confidence may be a result. With peers of the same being more advanced ridicule and bullying may result Learning to communicate is one of the main skills a child needs to help them develop in all areas. They can quickly fall behind from peers of the same age.
Payne states that impoverished students face inequality at school, insinuating that the school should be responsible for helping to provide for these students so that they can have a better education. Gorski sees that responsibility lies most likely with us, who can aid teachers in offering a hand, as they are underpaid and are not able to do much on their own. The two authors have clashing ideas as to why students are in poverty: Payne believes that the impoverished students are lazy and have their own set of
The African Child’s Identity Elliott’s White Veneer demonstrates how sufficiently the veneer covers a dark surface, an African American child. In the 1930s African and white children were split into different schools. In this era white Americans discriminated against African Americans because they did not have the same skin color. For this reason, African Americans were mistreated and also misconceived. This primarily affected African American children because their education system was different from the white children.
Many sociologists have linked labelling in school, especially by teachers, with the difference in achievements in terms of ethnicity. Negative stereotypes and labels may cause teacher to treat students from an ethnic minority differently, which could in turn, disadvantage them and ultimately, result in them underachieving. Studies from different sociologists back up and support this. Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found in their studies that teachers were more likely to discipline black students quicker than they would with their white counterparts, due to the fact that teachers held “racialised expectations”. They argued that they stereotyped and expected black students to present behaviour such as threatening and challenging authority, which leaves the student feeling underestimated and picked on.
The study found that the counsellor judged pupils largely on their social class; this therefore put them at a disadvantage as middle-class students were placed on higher level courses. The self-fulfilling prophecy is another internal factor that can be linked to social class differences in achievement. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it being made. Some sociologists argue that labelling can effect pupil’s achievement by creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This can be seen in a study of a primary school by Rosenthal and Jacobson.
2.2 Any form of prejudice and discrimination can have a severe negative effect throughout a person’s life. Being undervalued by peers can make a person feel isolated and lonely. A child’s confidence and self esteem will become less and less the more they are discriminated against. They will start not wanting to be involved in activities, stop putting their hand up to ask questions. This in turn will affect their learning and ability to interact.
If they are labelled as being ‘stupid’ early on in their career then they will be placed in the lower sets and streams. This means that they will not have access to the full range of courses available to them and this an effect their A level or degree choices. Sociologists would also agree by explaining that anti school subcultures may occur. These are groups of students who feel that they have been failed by education and stop trying or
One explanation for this is labelling. Interactionists say that teachers negatively label Afro-Caribbean children as being ‘trouble-makers’ and consequently give them little attention in class. Gillborn agrees with this and says that teachers are more likely to discipline black pupils more than other students for the same behaviour. Also there is an idea that teachers form racial stereotypes of black students as they associate them with gangs and crime. This can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy in which black students internalise these negative views and consequently behave
I find it rather scary, something that makes you truly think on it, as well as a little sad at the same time. The basic functions were written to involve everything from giving the children boring material, make the children all be alike one another as opposed to being individuals, determine what a students' role in society is, keeping them level grounded as opposed to going higher in life to be their best, selection of the better ones and humiliate the weaker with bad grades and the like, and even so much as having "chosen ones" that will excel to learn management and leadership skills, unlike the others, and rein over the oppressed