The findings show that after 3 seconds the participants were able to recall 80% of trigrams. As the time progressed, the participants were unable to recall as many trigrams. After 18 seconds, fewer than 10% of the trigrams were recalled correctly. In conclusion, trigrams may not be relevant to everyday life; neither do they reflect everyday memory. It was possible that interference from other trigrams caused the poor recall.
MSM Strengths: Primacy/Recency Primacy/Recency is an experiment where participants are given a list of 20 words in succession and the experiment is interested in where the most words are remembered. Primacy/recency proves MSM because the beginning of the list is first transferred to the LTM, the middle is forgotten due to the fact that it is being transferred from the STM to the LTM and the end of the list is stored in the STM so you are only able to write some of the words down. The whole of the experiment proves that there is a long term and a short term memory which MSM states exist. Clive Wearing is a man that suffers from the world’s worst case of amnesia. His memory is 30 seconds long and he doesn’t have the capacity to make new memories.
By putting different values for r3, we can get a number of lost revenues by simulation method. 4. Putting it together We will put all the random variables and calculated values together and then we have to find the cumulative number of weeks from the values for weeks which we have found in intervals between breakdowns. Now, we have to take that much values of r2 till the cumulative number of weeks reached at 52 or near about 52 such that if we will take one more value for r2 then cumulative number exceeds to 52. We are taking 52 weeks as an upper limit here because we have to find the lost revenue over the period of 1 year and 1 year contains 52
Research that was carried out by Sperling in 1960 gives evidence for the MSM, this is because the experiment that was carried out showed that when reporting a group of 12 items that were flashed on a screen for 50 milliseconds, it was 42% less accurate than reporting only one row, which was 75%. This shows that information in the SM decays rapidly unless it is able to be transferred into STM and then into LTM. Another piece of research that supports the MSM is that carried out by Glanzer and Cunitz. There research looked at the serial position effect. When the participants were asked to record the number of words they could remember from a list of 20 words it was found that the participants tended to remember the words that were at the beginning of the list because the words are rehearsed and therefore they are transferred into the LTM.
There is what is called a “curve of forgetting” that takes place in our memory as time passes. Typically, once we experience a situation it is stored in our memory. But after 24 hours, if you don’t think about the memory quite a good amount or review the memory on a daily basis your mind will start to forget it. The memory will begin to fade completely and as each day goes by you will gradually remember less and less. On average, by day two after information is stored in our memory we have already began to forget a big chunk of it.
They found that participants remembered about 90% when there was only a second interval; but this dropped to 2% when an 18 second interval was emplaced. Thus concluding verbal repetition prevents rehearsal of items being stored in STM decay quickly, so items last approximately 10 seconds in STM without rehearsal. One research conducted by Bahrick et al in America demonstrated the considerable duration of LTM by asking people of various ages to put names to faces from their high school year book. 48 years on people were about 70% accurate. There was a free recall test, photo recognition test and name recognition test.
The Sensory Memory Store has a limited abilility to store information, any information received will either decay or by taking notice of the information can then continue forward to the (STM). In 1960 Sperling’s investigation into the capacity of the iconic memory suggests that the (SMS) are large but decay very rapidly. SHORT TERM MEMORY STORE The (STMS) holds the information which has been transferred over from the sensory store. The storage time can range between 20-30 seconds if not ‘rehearsed’. It can hold a limited amount of items; Miller 1956 suggested 7 items plus or minus 2 in his study known as Millers magic number seven.
They found that the estimated speed was effected by the verb used in the question; smashed had the highest speed while contacted had the lowest speed. This shows that EWT is inaccurate due the leading questions which can affect the witness’s answers to things. The same psychologists did another experiment using the same methodology (which was fairly similar) expect they only used two verbs; smashed and hit. After a week had passed they asked the participants to come back and where asked if they saw any broken glass in the video. The group that got question with the verb ‘smashed’ stated they saw glass even though there wasn’t any.
A study observing the long term follow-up of a token economy 24 months after its application found a significant 33 percent reduction in the total number of injuries (LePage et al., 2003). The study also found severity of staff injuries from assaults was significantly less during the time the token economy was in use. This research replicates the result of a token economy study over a two year period with a group of psychiatric inpatients (Bellus et al., 1999). This study found a great decrease in aggressive behaviour and self-injurious rate over the two years using the token economy compared to standard treatment. Both studies effectively displayed the advantage of a token economy and its effectiveness in its primary goal of reducing aggression and undesirable
Test showed the underground water basin had dropped by as much as 40 feet between 1989 and 1992 and nearly 140 feet in some places over the past three decades (174). When the reports came back from how much water was really being used the landmark USGS report set into motion a predictable, but nonetheless fascinating, political dance (174). Therefore, in 1993 the reaction to the water “wake