His book, Hereditary Genius was the first social scientific attempt to study intelligence and prominence. He also conducted numerous twin studies. In the 20th century, the Nazis pursued the agenda that people are who they are based on being defined by one's race. The Communists, on the other hand, largely followed Marx's lead in defining the human identity as subject to social structures, not nature. This argument led to ongoing debate of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology.
There are misconceptions about the use of race because all humans fall in the category of homosapiens. The general public most often use race in a naïve or simplistic way to categorize or differentiate people from one another. Many scholars and anthropologists have taken the position that the concept of race is a socially constructed ideologyu . In other words, society and all its people created this term to make practical distinctions among people of different traits, characteristics, and geographic ancestry. This is where racial stereotyping may occur as a result of this practice.
Both minority and dominant groups hold their own characteristics and ways in which they became a part of either group; not surprisingly, depending on which class and individual belongs to, their whole life can change. Individuals who belong to a minority group are singled out for unequal treatment by members of dominant groups. Minorities worldwide share similar characteristics. Minorities’ cultural and physical traits are held with low respect by the dominating groups, who treat them unjustly. For instance, often times just because a younge boy is a darker skin toned Mexican, a Caucasian boy might ask, “So do your parents sell oranges for a living?” Most often, this causes individuals to marry within their own minority or dominant group.
Just like other sciences, sociology uses the scientific method: Defining the problem that is in need of study Reviewing existing literature on the subject Formulating a hypothesis Consider the ethical issues involved Choose a research design Collect and analyze data Draw conclusions Sociologists study society as a 'social science' however the status of sociology as a science is easily questionable when compared to how scientists study the natural world. While determining if sociology fits in with other fields of scientific study, you have to determine which studies are performed by both sociologists and scientists who study the natural world. Many people describe science as matter that you can test and perform experiments on. Sociology does not involve matter but can be studied and tested based off people and how they act. Another reason I believe that sociology is a science is because of all the different definitions for each field of study such as: sociological perspective, sociological imagination, empirical etc.
The nature v. nuture debate was first started by Francis Galton who believed intelligence, morals, and strength was based on heredity. He used the theory of evolution to prove this thought by using natural selection which means the most adaptable trait is passed through generations (Nale, J., 2010). He used the term “eugenics” as a means to describe the breeding of certain genes or breeding out of bad traits to create a superior race. An extreme example of the progression of eugenics was the Nazi attempt to exterminate the Jewish people. The Jews were seen as an inferior race that needed to be extinct in order to not minimize the corruption of the human genome by excluding inferior traits (Tudge, C., 1999).
Ruth Frankenberg, the author of White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness, argues that similar to the way gender shapes the different experiences in men and women’s lives, race is what shapes the experiences in white women’s lives (Frankenberg 1). Frankenberg claims that there is an importance in analytically reflecting on the social position of supremacy that white people inhabit in a given society (Frankenberg 1). Frankenberg is determined to promote the creation of a more equitable and unprejudiced society through her research
In my opinion, from the evidence provided in our own world today, HBCUs are very important and significant in the education of black people throughout the nation, and are essential to our society. With regards to the opinion that the existence of HBCUs is in fact, a mellowed form of racism, one must first remember the history behind the origins of HBCUs. Many people believe that these institutions have outlived their purpose because we live in a fully integrated society and these institutions stand as hallmarks of segregation. However, by thinking this way is not an analyzing the complete picture because one must bear in mind that HBCUs are old and hallowed institutions of higher learning established in a time when talented, desiring and tenacious African-Americans wished to go to school but could not attend places such as the established white universities. Most people who believe that HBCUs are no longer useful also believe that because the law forbids the practice of racism HBCUs should be shut down.
Hip-hop is best identified with the African-American culture. For that, there are quite a few white rappers who have tried to imitate the story of “rags-to-riches” from black artists to gain acceptance within hip-hop. In the 1980s, Vanilla Ice succeeded in becoming a rapper using claims of coming from a background of poverty and crime. He even came out with a biography that said that he had been stabbed in a gang fight. His biography was quickly disproven.
On the other hand Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into useable statistics. It is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviours, and other defined variables – and generalize results from a larger sample population. Auguste Comte as the founder of Sociology, saw the study of human behaviour as a science. Kuhn argues that scientists are not open-minded but are strongly committed to their theories. Scientists according to him try to defend rather than falsify their theories.
Stereotypes are when people have the same conclusion based on false thoughts rather than truth because of a previous interaction. The stereotype is then related to all people within that population. Personal Awareness 0f Bias As a child I had restrictions placed, by my parents, on areas I would be allowed to visit, boys I could date, friends to hang out with, and language I was allowed to speak. As an adult, I realize that these restrictions were placed based on my parent’s biases, stereotypes, fears, and attitudes toward the African American population. My father was raised in inner city Philadelphia and was witness and a participant to racial interactions.