Great Britain was the first nation to industrialize by around one hundred years. Having this big of a gap allowed them to completely dominate the rest of the world in means of production. Not only did Great Britain increase production as a result of the Industrial Revolution but they also were able to produce more products quicker and more efficient. Giving them more product for the required labor, which allowed the nation’s economy to grow because with the extra product they could use it for trade. Natural resources are the key to Great Britain’s economic dominance and success during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Like many industrial cities in the nineteenth century, Manchester fell to many problems pertaining the lives and wellbeing of its inhabitants. Living conditions were dire, and workers were working long hours with minimal pay. It was not until the 1832 Reform Bill and the Hours of Labor and Factories Act in 1844 that conditions were able to improve and Manchester was able to prosper. Although the industrialization of Manchester was cardinal for the modernization of man, Manchester’s growth also raised many issues in society. Technological advancements, quality of everyday life, and poor working conditions became major issues raised by the growth of Manchester, and people reacted to these issues in both negative and positive ways.
He felt these areas would help to solve Russia's three biggest problems; Communication, Size and Social Divide. Witte's industrial policy covered many areas. The first was huge investments from France. Witte used this money to kick-start various economic plans he had. This money was important because the economy in Russia was poor at the time; bearing in mind there was a huge number of peasants and very few working class people at the time may suggest a reason for this.
Working conditions were harsh for the American industrial worker in the 1800s. With the boom of the Second Industrial Revolution and the need to expand business to meet consumer demands, employment opportunities opened at a rapid rate. In order to maximize profits, however, workers were given very few luxuries. Most factories had deplorable working conditions and were unsafe. Many workers lost hearing from loud machinery, lost limbs in hazardous equipment, and even lost their life due to the apathy of factory owners.
So this was also a key factor in the expansion of the slave trade. The profitability of the slave trade was enormous for any job involved especially people like merchants, bankers and financiers who were very keen to invest in the development of plantations, purchase of slaves and in the building of ships to carry the slaves and goods since they made such huge profits on their original investment. But also the plantation owners who did not have to pay for the labour as the slaves obviously were forced to work with no pay could profit from this. Of course, the slaves, however, did not profit from this at all. At this time there was a need for a labour force to work the lucrative plantations and so this was the basis on which the slave trade was formed.
This meant serfdom was already coming to its own natural end, and for Alexander II to support his nobles he had to emancipate the serfs so they could go start increasing their wealth and get out of debt. Serfdom was also holding Russia back, with the rest of Europe liberalising and making vast economic progress Russia’s economy was starting to look inferior and for them to advance as a nation they had to increase productivity of the serfs and the simple solution was to emancipate them. The serfs were inefficient and had a low productivity due to poor farming methods and constantly being oppressed by their nobles. This oppression and poor farming was caused by the extremely conservative rule which refused to modernise, had the Tsar modernised the farming techniques and stopped the
This can be demonstrated through the examination of urbanization, the rise of new classes, theories (by Smith, Malthus and Ricardo), and factory conditions. The industrial revolution began with tinkers introducing new inventions that were going to dramatically improve the way people produced goods. These new machines (such as the water frames, cotton gins, power looks, and the spinning jenny) enabled different industries (like the Textile industry to produce products in mass quantities. In consequence, these new methods of production made other approaches such as the cottage industry obsolete. These new techniques may have allowed for ample production of goods and prices of goods to drop, ultimately increasing consumerism; inevitably though, it had a destructive effect on the old-fashioned methods of production.
This was mostly due to his policies of collectivisation which made economic sense and forced a lot of peasants to leave the land, which was a process needed in order to change an agricultural rural society to an urban and industrial one as well s the fact that his industrialisation plan increased massively the heavy industry in Russia; the production of raw materials such as iron, coal, steel and oil all increased successfully. There were other successes in his economic policy of rearmament, which also improved labour productivity and the transport in the country. However, it would be incorrect to say that all what Stalin did during this period was a success since he also presented various failures, for example not being able to boost the production of consumer goods as well as creating a huge man made famine. It was clear at the time that Russia needed a change, as Stalin said: ‘’ We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this
Freedom and equality for all citizens was continuously being stressed in society and with these ideals came realization from all walks of life that everyone deserves to be heard and considered. This awareness of self-empowerment gave birth to all kinds of social and political revolutionary movements from all minority groups in America. The idea of being able to have your own ideas, preferences, values, morals, etc. excited these movements and encouraged people to take action. Industry played a key role in propelling the women suffrage movement because the jobs that were now being created were of domestic relevance.
So this meant peasants didn’t get a lot of land, which became more of a problem because to aid industrialisation, a policy of export and starve was introduced. This meant that peasants had to sell as much grain as possible to survive, which although increased exports enormously, caused many peasants to starve and live in terrible conditions. This caused peasant’s standard of living to decrease and because export and starve was a government policy, some began to oppose the tsarist regime. Many peasants moved to cities and became workers. These workers were also crippled but enlightened by industrialisation meaning that again opposition increased.