Legitimising their monarchies seemed extremely difficult after Alexander’s death, and after the standard he had set for the successors that followed his legacy. Phillip II Arrhidaeus, Cassander, Demetrius, Lysiamachus, Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Arisone II Philadelphus are the successors discussed in relation to legitimising their monarchies in this essay. After Alexander the Great’s death, his half-brother, Philip III Arrhidaeus (359 BC – December 25, 317 BC), became king of Macedonia. At the time of Alexander's death, Roxane, one of Alexander’s two wives, was pregnant with Alexander’s son, Alexander IV, who later collectively shared rule over the Macedonians with Philip. When Philip was subsequently murdered in 317 B.C., and young Alexander was killed about seven years later, Alexander’s once vast empire was to change dramatically from the death of the king.
It is said by Plutarch that Miltiades enjoyed the highest prestige from the battle, and this would have increased Athenian reputation among the Greek states (it is important to note that one factor of the formation of e empire was that the Ionian States chose Athens), and would thus have made them more inclined to choose Athens as the hegemon, and allowing them to create their empire. Pausanius also played an influential role in the formation of the Athenian Empire; however it was through his negative actions and behaviour that this came to be. Pausanius was the Spartan
Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great I have chosen to write on the legendary historical leader and military tactician, Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great was the son of the King Philip II, who was the ruler of the Macedonian Empire around 359-336 B.C. Philip II was assassinated by the captain of his own body guards during a party at his palace. Alexander was the heir to the throne, and was proclaimed King by the Macedon nobles and the Army. This marks the beginning of the reign of Alexander the Great, and the expansion of his empire.
The consequential rise of the Athenian Empire, however, was simultaneous with the development of its increasingly autocratic and aggressive attitude. The aftermath of this conflict therefore involved the Athenian worldview coming to resemble that which it had initially sought to repress. The Persian Wars are demonstrative of how external threats can promote unity and cohesion from within. The ease and aggression with which the Persians conquered the region of the Asia Minor during the sixth century BCE established them as the pre-eminent power in the ancient world, and therefore a threat to Greek autonomy. After King Cyrus of Persia overthrew the Median rulers in 550 BCE, the Persians successfully extended their realm in conquering Lydia (546 BCE), eventually pushing their boarders further eastward by crossing to the boarders of Macedonia in 513 BCE (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012).
Athens had trade interest in the Ionian region. So Athens encouraged the Ionians when they revolted against Persia in 499 BC. This enraged Darius and he led the 1st Greco-Persian war and was defeated in 490 BC in the battle of Marathon. His son, Xerxes led the 2nd invasion against Athens. In the meantime, the Athenians convinced the Greek city states that Persia was a serious security threat for the whole region and formed an alliance against the Persians.
Alexander then moved into the Persian capitals of Susa and Persepolis where the Persian treasuries of gold and silver were kept. In 330 BCE, Darius III was betrayed and killed by one of his own men. Alexander then took the title and office of the Great King of Persia. Starting in 330 BCE, Alexander had moved into what is now Pakistan and by summer of 327 BCE had entered India. In 326 BCE, Alexander’s forces won the Battle of Hydaspes in northwestern India.
It was an excellent example of how the mistakes in the organization can spoil the results. By the end of sixth century Persia was the most important player on the arena of the Middle East. This country gained much power and influence during the government of Achaemenid dynasty. It conquered such powerful east-Mediterranean states as Midia, Lidia, Babylonia and Egypt. After the last Lidia’s ruler Kreza was defeated, Persians had conquered the Greek colonies that were located at the west coast of Asia Minor.
The Athenians came in from the center and from the sides as well. This strategy had worked and the Athenians had won victory. They marched back to Athens with pride, but were ready to defend Athens against the Persian’s cavalry. We commemorate the Athenian soldiers and leaders who helped Greece. They were so brave and knew they could do it, even though they were small compared to the Persians.
Persian Imperialism was the most significant cause of the First Persian war; origins of the Persian Empire were dated back to 584BC, With Cyrus the ruler of a small area Persis. Cyrus the Great, after taking power of Persis had begun to create a series of military reforms. The ruler of Media, Astyages, a region close by feared this new threat and equipped to battle which ended in defeat of his rule and the reign of Media diverting into Cyrus’ hands. “The Persian empire was created within the space of a single generation of conquests that followed one another...” as the quote states Cyrus’ Persian Empire rapidly expanded over India, the Black Sea, the Red Sea, Egypt and more importantly the Ionian coast, which was the most significant key resulting in the First Persian War. After the Death of Cyrus, his son Cambyses took power and was later succeeded by Darius the Great who was the first to step into European land, the kings of Persia all had a role in conquering more than there predecessor and that’s exactly what Darius had in mind.
Alexander was a philosophical idealist who strived to create unity in attempting to integrate Persians and Orientals into his administration and army. He had encouraged his commanders and troops to marry Persian women in order to blend their societies. He wanted to spread Greek culture and education. In 334 BC, he invaded Persia and within ten years defeated them. There were three main battles with the Persians.