Diabetes Type 2 Essay

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and is a public health issue increasing at a significant rate. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form (Alberti & Zimmett 1998), affecting 85 to 90 per cent of all people with diabetes. Diabetes type 2 causes are complex although if symptoms are identified, early diagnosis can aid treatment and prognosis. Diabetes affects the way the body makes or uses insulin caused by disorders of insulin action and insulin secretion (Whiting et al. 2011). It occurs when fat, liver and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. The specific reasons for the development of these abnormalities are inconclusive (Alberti & Zimmett 1998). Bodies require glucose from food to convert into energy. The hormone insulin is essential for this conversion and required to move blood sugar glucose into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. When this hormone is missing or the cells cannot absorb insulin properly sugar builds up in the blood. Glucose is carried around the body in the blood stream and blood glucose levels are called glycaemia. Insulin resistance is the result of blood sugar build up known as hyperglycaemia. This occurs when the pancreas stops working or the cells stop using the insulin. In type 2 diabetes, many people often have no symptoms at all at first. Fatigue, hunger, increased thirst and increased urination are some symptoms. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed three ways. Firstly, by a fasting plasma glucose test, that measures blood glucose in a person who has not been eating for at least 8 hours. Secondly, an oral glucose tolerance test measuring blood glucose 8 hours after a person eats and two hours after the person drinks a glucose-containing beverage. The last way is a random plasma glucose test; this measures blood glucose without regard to when the person last

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