Being a criminal or deviant could be seen to be a social construct and therefore this may mean that you could question what criminal activity is and whether this social construct is even right since it has been constructed by members of the society. The laws of the society have also constructed the norms and values of society and therefore if someone were to go against that they would be seen to be criminal however, this may differ in other parts of the world because what may be criminal and deviant in our society may be seen to be the norm in another. The labelling theory helps us to understand why people commit crimes and why people end up being deviant within the community. One reason may be that this stereotypical view or pre-judgement enables people to self-fulfil their prophecy and therefore creates criminal for example. Someone who comes from poor background and where’s hoodies does not automatically mean that they could be deviant.
Discuss the factors that contribute to prejudice and discrimination and identify some techniques for reducing the development of prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice and discrimination have been prevalent throughout human history. Prejudice has to do with a negative attitude held by a person about members of a particular group, while discrimination refers to behaviors directed differently against people because of prejudice toward the social group they belong to. Prejudice is the attitude and discrimination is the behavior that can result from the attitude. Discrimination can be controlled by laws, but the prejudicial attitude can’t be easily controlled.
This then lead for official statistics and the law enforcement to show a bias towards working class boys. This research shows how deviance only exists because people have decided to attach a label, thus the labelling theory is useful in explain how a deviant and criminal behaviour is classed as this. However, it fails to explain why some people certain crime and deviance in the first place before they are labelled. Also, as said in Item a ‘’deviant individuals are labelled when their actions are discovered and provoke reactions from society. However, this reaction will take differing forms, depending on how the nature of the action is perceived.’’ But as well as this, labelling theorists look at the effects and reaction it causes the individual to take.
For example, one of the main constituents of a phobia is generally described as being where the ‘anxiety causes interference with the functioning of a normal life’, but what if different doctors had different ideas of what a normal life was? You would be classed as phobic by one and not by the other. Another main issue relating to the classification of phobias is the fact that an anxiety disorder may present differently in different cultures, so it is not universalisable. For example, in Japan people can get diagnosed with phobias of offending people through one’s own awkwardness, but in Western countries this doesn’t exist. This is probably because in Japan there
These side effects may affect one person but not another. This would be hard to study as you can not say it is exactly one thing, and then you would have to look at the extraneous variables which affect each problem. However, this could also be good as it is not really being reductionist in its own approach; it is looking at all the possible individual differences. If choosing a different approach, like cognitive, then it would still be difficult because you do not know what the person is thinking. You would have to rely on the patient giving you the information for it not is socially desirable or have demand characteristics.
Deviance is behaviour that does not conform to the norms and expectations of society. For a lot people, deviance is a word used only in relation to religious, moral and political norms. A ‘deviant’ is someone who chooses to depart from what is referred to as ‘normal’ moral standards or who deviates from a political or religious environment or institution. From a sociological point of view deviance, however, is viewed from within a much broader perspective taking into consideration deviation from many kinds of social norms, this could be something relatively trivial such as burping or farting in public or something explicitly banned such as murder or rape. What is crime?
Underreporting occurs due to individuals being dishonest regarding their behavior, therefore causing an error in the research done. A possible solution to this limitation is focusing on observed behavior, and correlating the findings with the self-reporting behavior, therefore developing a conclusion that is more in-depth. Furthermore, Article 2 emphasized that other factors can influence self-labeling as a victim in relation to work-place bullying, not just anxiety and anger. In addition, discovering a moderation effect regarding negative acts of violence and self-labeling is hard to discover due to the psychological way an individual may experience an event. Lastly, Article 3 honed on the lack of variances of deviant behavior.
Abnormal Psychology Lisa Mac Donald-Clark PSY/410 December 19, 2011 Mark Hurd Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology, also known as psychopathology, is the branch of psychology that deals with abnormal behaviors and mental illness (Hansell & Damour, (2008). Although psychopathology is a fascinating field of study it can be equally challenging, covering a broad range of disorders, illnesses, and symptoms. Defining abnormal psychology also poses a challenge. The fundamental concept of abnormal would seem simple in that it would include anything that falls outside of what societies considers normal. Narrowing the group association is essential in defining the behavior as normal or abnormal.
Life in the modern world is full of stress and struggles that are ready to let you down anytime. People are in a hurry, eat fast, work harder and forget how to take care of their health because they are too busy to think of how to eat in a right way. They keep ruining their health by fulfilling their stomach as much as they can. So, many nutritionists advise that people should change this bad eating habit and do simple things, such as eat less and slowly. In the book “Food Rules”, Michael Pollan also lists “Eat Slowly” and “Eat Less” as recommendation for eaters.
Society’s view on certain groups of people has changed with time, but the way people perceive and stereotype others shows conformity to what others feel is correct or acceptable, although those perceptions may or may not be true. Stereotypes are these images or generalizations that have been given to groups of people to portray the way society views their actions, standard of living, or even the type person they are. These views of certain groups are merely just opinions or generalizations and do not represent all the people justly and can cause misconceptions of a person’s ability, personality, or just as a person as a whole. Of those misconceptions on certain stereotypes, the Hispanics have been portrayed as this figure in society that is seen as a lazy group not willing to work. Through research and what is seen in today’s world we see this stereotype being thrown around attempting to classify Hispanics, where in reality we see a growing number of Hispanics in the workforce.