One of the main objectives of functionalism is to find out, how social order is possible. Parsons argues that social order is achieved through the existence of a shared culture, a central value system. This provides a framework that allows individuals to cooperate by laying down rules about how they should behave and defining the goals they should pursue. Social order is only possible so long as members of society agree to the norms and values. Parsons calls this agreement value consensus.
In this sense, who humans beings are, what they believe, and how they came to be, have all been influenced by society. Society has formed human nature to a point that is hard to argue against. ELABORATE/MORE EVIDENCE. To determine the social coordination/organization of society, Benedict stems many of her claims from observations of three groups: the Zuñi, Dobu, and Kwakiutl. In order to determine social coordination/organization, Benedict claims, “we need detailed information about contrasting limits of behaviors and the motivations that are dynamic in one society and not in another” (229).
For example the nature vs nurture debate. Talcott parsons (1902-79) were a key functionalist thinker. He saw society as a system made up of interrelated institutions (like the human body) He thought the main role of an institution was to socialise individuals so they behaved in acceptable ways. He argued that socialisation is the key to understanding patterns of human behaviour. Our behaviour is controlled by the rules of society into which we are born; the result is we don’t have to be told that what we are doing is socially unacceptable- we already know and feel uncomfortable if we don’t conform to social norms.
This essay will explore whether society shares a basic consensus about norms and values. Our norms are defined as behaviour that is generally seen as expected and accepted by the masses of society, and our values are defined as a learned personal moral behaviour of what is right and wrong. The essay will also explore the experiences and ways that determine where we learn these norms and values from, which is properly defined as the process of socialisation. As sociologists generally dispute whether society shares consensus of norms and values, this essay shall specifically explore two major sociological theories namely functionalism and the major conflict theory Marxism in a limited amount of detail to provide a basic depth of understanding. Along with the theories I will explore the major institutions of organised religion and education with the eventual aim of providing a clear answer to the essay question.
"All conditioning aims at that: making people like their inescapable social destiny." People need to be show something that is against what they have been focusing on to truly understand the world. I truly believe the old saying, "a human believes everything they hear unless they have some reason not to." What makes something write in society? Your own concepts make something socially
Outline and explain the Functionalists view of education Functionalism is based on the view that society is a system of independent groups held together by a shared culture or value consensus. This is an agreement in society among its members about what values are important. Each part of society such as the family and education system performs functions that help to maintain society as a whole. Functionalists see the education system as acting in a more positive way to keep society running in the way it should. Many sociologists have studied the role of education and argued that the education helps its members in ways such as language and academic skills.
Emile Durkheim, a leading Functionalist, believed that different institutions in different cultures teach us norms and values that make up our identity and personality. Our actions result in consensus of norms and values, which then gives us a sense of social order and installs order in society through man’s actions. Through culture, social order is achieved and individuals can begin to develop their personal qualities. However, Functionalists base their ideas on a traditional society, as opposed to today’s more multi-cultural society and this is a point to which Postmodernists disagree with. Other theories also have the idea that the Functionalists are exaggerating the consensus in society.
Norms, another importance in sociology are parts of behaviour. Norms tend to reflect the values of the group and specify those actions that are proper and those that are inappropriate, as well as rewards for sticking to something and punishments for following rules and laws. Socialisation means the process by which we learn the culture of our society. For example, looking at different behaviours. Socialisation describes a process which may lead to desirable or moral outcomes.
Theorists such as Talcott Parsons and Karl Marx have both came up with theories for why they believed norms are needed in society. According to Parsons, norms dictate the interactions of everyone with social encounters in a society. On the other hand, Marx believed that norms were used to promote the creation of roles in society which allows for people of different levels of social classes to be able to function properly. He also claimed that this power creates social order. As humans we learn when and where it is appropriate to say certain things, what actions to use and how to dress around certain groups.
Social Identity Theory: The Social Identity Theory was created by Henri Tajfel who proposed that social Identity is a person’s sense of who they are based on the group or people they most frequently interact with, these groups they give people of self-belonging, pride and self-esteem. The theory was originally developed to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. Tajfel et al (1971) attempted to identify the minimal conditions that would make people discriminate in favour of the in-group and against another out-group. Social groups help people give themselves an identity, something to attach themselves to in the social world, like a personal title. In order to increase our self-image we enhance the status of the in- group, the group we belong to.