"Developmental-genetic effects on level and change in childhood fears of twins during adolescence"
Introduction: In this article they were trying to find the link between development/ genetic effects on the level and change of 1412 sets of twin's childhood fears. They explored many common childhood fears to attempt to find a direct correlation between the developmental and genetic effect on the level and change in childhood fears. They assessed each individual up to three times during their adolescence ages eight to eighteen. During this they realized that when the children are younger they tend to have more fears of physical harm and punishment where older children have more fear of social acceptance and achievement. This study is trying to find which fears are correlated to development or genetics.
Method: They took many different types of fears like fear of the unknown including ghosts, thunderstorms, the dark, as well as others. They found that as age increases the fear of these things decrease for both girls and boys. They took the children and asked them questions on the fears to formulate the charts of the frequencies of boys and girls that were scared of the specific items. They used Ollindick's schedule of fears and an item response theory model that showed the effects of genes and the environment on the childhood fears and rates that these fears declined as the children grew older. This model illustrated individual genetic and environmental differences in the initial fear and in the decrease or elimination of the fear.
Results: The genetic differences between the children affected the five fears that they were shown. The results also show that the same genes also affect the rate at which the fear subsides. This result was clearing shown with the boys. Boys with a high genetic predisposition to the five fears showed a much slower