Erikson believed that there are eight developmental stages in a person’s life, that at each stage a person is challenged by a psychosocial crisis and that their personality is shaped on how they deal with those psychosocial crises (Norman 2003). Erikson’s claims that there are eight developmental stages in a person’s lifespan, each stage being a heavy turning point with can lead to many outcomes. The first stage is called Trust v Mistrust which starts at birth and ends when the child is year old, when the infant is fully dependant on their caregivers for basic necessities and as well as forming the initial attachment. This stage determines whether the infant can trust the environment that is now lives in. During the second and third year of a child’s life is where he/she are faced with certain responsibilities, at this stage the child begins to learn how to dress, feed, bathe and use the toilet, where they become responsible for their efforts to achieve goals.
M1 :Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to the development of an individual In this assignment I will be discussing the nature- nurture debate in relation to the development of an individual. The nature- nurture debate has been around for many centuries which argues about the role of heredity and environment in human development. The nature – nurture debate is concerned with particular aspects of behaviour which are believed to be either a product of inherited or learned characteristics. Some philosophers and theorists have argued that we are just born to be the way we are. Whereas other theorists have argued that is is the way we are brought up and influenced by our surroundings that makes an individual the way they are.
The interaction of nature and nurture is clearly described in social learning theories. A behavior is observed and learned, and the individual responds to their environment using learned behaviors and their own judgment on the situation. 2. Which theories emphasize the impact of early experience on development? Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory consists of eight stages and describes the impact of early experiences and experiences over the lifespan from childhood to adulthood (Cherry, 2013).
Humans develop throughout their life span, while Freud said that our personality is shaped by the age of five. Erikson’s eight stages of personality development are characterized by basic life conflicts. In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that served as a turning point in development. Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
Piaget had a clear impact on developmental psychology. He believed that progressive changes in cognitive structures in stages of development was how children progress. Piaget believed that the creation of new schemas or the alteration of existing schema’s to cope with information developed through the stages of development he arrived at. In the article the students were in Primary 6 or 7 making the students about the ages of 10 or 11. These students according to Piaget’s theory were at the concrete operational stage where they were in the process of becoming more logical, objective and deductive.
He grew up in one of the most exciting times in human history, when the basis of modern science was being laid down by early psychophysicalists like Billroth, Helmholtz and Brucke (Sulloway, 1979). While, Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory endured condemnation and in some cases outright ridicule when it was first published, it has produced many groundbreaking insights about unconscious, the role of internal conflict, and the importance of early childhood experiences in personality development (Weiten, W. 2004, p 480). Furthermore these theories are supported by research which demonstrated that firstly, unconscious forces can influence behavior, secondly, internal conflict plays a key role in generating psychological distress, thirdly, early childhood experiences can have powerful influences on personality and finally, people do use defense mechanisms to reduce their experience of unpleasant emotions (Westen, 1998; Westen & Gabbard, 1999). In 1915 Freud published essay Instincts and Their Vicissitudes in which he put forward an idea “the three great polarities that dominate mental life”, pleasure-unpleasure, active-passive and internal-external (Freud,
Psychoanalytic Theory Krystal L. Flentge Dallas Baptist University Psychoanalytic Theory Brief history of the theory and theorist The psychoanalytic theory is considered as one of the most influential theories in psychology. The theory, which was developed by Sigmund Freud, concentrates on the relationship between adulthood behavior and upbringing experiences. The theory is founded on the effects of childhood experiences and unconsciousness towards determining the human behavior. In the analysis of the psychoanalytic theory, human development is subdivided into several psychosexual stages. The consistencies among these stages determine the stability of an individual behavior.
Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle. These eight stages, spanning from birth to death, are split in general age ranges. Erikson’s Stages of Development 1. Infancy: Birth-18 Months Old Basic Trust
The term personality refers to those relatively enduring aspects of attitudes, feelings, responses, and behaviors that permit us to recognize a particular person whom we have known over time. It is, in a way, a fingerprint of an individual's psychological makeuphe framework of how the individual thinks and acts. Psychiatrists believe that this framework arises out of childhood, powerfully shaped by the actions of parenting and the other social and environmental factors on a complex set of genetic and other biological givens. It is then further molded throughout one's development to achieve more or less lasting form in adolescence and early adulthood. In the nineteenth century, we said that some people had willpower or a strong character; now we might refer to their good coping skills or to their ego strengthifferent ways of describing global measures of effective functioning.
Cognitive Psychology Definition Paper Debbie Cooper PSY/360 April 1, 2013 Cognitive Psychology Definition Paper Introduction Identifying some key milestones in the development of cognitive psychology as a form of discipline and how they pertain to psychology is discussed in this paper. The description of cognitive psychology, what it means for psychology, and its beginnings are crucial to understanding psychology. This research will describe how each milestone has added to the strength of cognitive psychology and will show the importance of cognitive psychology. The researcher will begin with the definition of cognitive psychology. The Definition Cognitive psychology broken down into its simplest form is essentially thinking psychology.