Developmental Essay

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Discussion 1 The three things that I chose to research from our reading discussion was how Sigmund and Rogers theories were almost the same back in the late 1880s. By the early 20th century, Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical theories were being challenged, most notably by American psychologist Carl Rogers. While Freud examined the effects of the unconscious mind upon patients, Rogers' work focused on environmental factors and the patient's experience in the world. It was during this same time period that advanced education in medicine and certification was becoming required for psychoanalysts, because in the United States, analysis of the mind was viewed as a medical endeavor. Frank Parsons, often called the father of vocational guidance, had established the new field of career counseling between the years 1906 and 1908 Rogers borrowed Parson's label, "counselor," and extended it to individuals who were educated in and practiced behavioral health both outside of the field of medicine and toward different goals than medical psychoanalysis . This helped remove some of the prejudice against non-medically trained professionals and shifted the emphasis away from treating clients purely as medical patients to helping individuals and groups realize their developmental goals. The relatively new field of counseling that stemmed from Parsons' vocational guidance movement and Rogers' work was of particular value during World War II, when the need for vocational training became acute, and after the war, when a large number of people were integrating back into a society that had become profoundly different. Some returned with psychological problems, and many were left with disabilities. Many more had come home to a country where they could not find jobs. Around this time, the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Veterans Administration (VA) both formed counseling

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