Introductory Awareness of Models of Disability Describe the medical model of disability: This model view disability as a ‘problem’ to only the individual with the disability and not to any other. Describe the social model of disability: This views society as the disabling factor, by designing things to suit the needs of the majority, rather than the needs of disabled people. Outline how each of the models has developed and evolved over time Medical model: This model has developed a lot over time. Rather than care being institutional orientated, many people are now in community based care settings, allowing them to feel included as a valuable part of society. Society has changed to view the strengths of individuals with disabilities, rather
It creates low expectations and leads to people losing independence, choice and control in their own lives. They are disempowered: medical diagnoses are used to regulate and control access to social benefits, housing, education, leisure and employment. The medical model promotes the view of a disabled person as dependent and needing to be cured or cared for, and it justifies the way in which disabled people have been systematically excluded from society. The disabled person is the problem, not society. Control resides firmly with professionals as choices for the individual are limited to the options provided and approved by the 'helping' expert.
Under the medical model, these impairments or differences should be 'fixed' or changed by medical and other treatments, even when the impairment or difference does not cause pain or illness. The medical model looks at what is 'wrong' with the person, not what the person needs. It creates low expectations and leads to people losing independence, choice and control in their own lives. 1.2 Describe the social model of disability The social model of disability says that disability is caused by the way society is organised, rather than by a person’s impairment or difference. It looks at ways of removing barriers that restrict life choices for disabled people.
558 1.1 Explore Models of Disability. Medical Model of Disability: This came about in the 1960’s, with the belief that any problems lie with the person who has the disability. It also states that the person with the disability needs to accommodate society and change to fit in. People were not treated as individuals and had no self-worth as they were not seen as normal. There was a need to try and cure people with disabilities.
People with a disability are seen and said to be a personal problem to the family. This model is where dehumanization comes into play the most. The medical model is where the worse points of disabilities is bought out and shown as the important points of a situation. It also talks about how the disability can be fixed surgically or medically to help the person fit into the society better. With the medical model society doesn’t show any concern in trying to change things to help the person with disabilities.
One of the biggest changes has been the move away from medical models of disability, focused on individual pathology (or "what was wrong" with them) and towards a social model which views disability in terms of the social restriction and oppression imposed by non-disabled people. With this model, the task is to remove barriers in society, which prevent the full participation of people with learning disabilities. Whereas in the past, disabled people were expected to "fit in" to society, the emphasis now is on society finding ways of adapting to their needs. More people with learning disabilities are using mainstream community facilities such as colleges, hospitals, libraries, and leisure centres. This sends out a clear message that segregation is no longer
Disability is defined in different ways. There are a number of models of disability, but the main models of disability are: The Medical model, whereby the disability is considered as the condition, or the affliction, or the illness. The Social model, whereby the disability is considered to be the society which presents the problems and prevents the individual participating fully in social life. And the Psychosocial model, that refers to mental ill health, as well as maladjusted, cognitive and behavioural problems which may prevent the individual functioning in social situations. Up until the early 1970’s people who had an impairment, or an illness were considered as disabled.
There are two models that link with equality, diversity and inclusion, social model of disability and medical model of disability/ Social model of disability which views discrimination and injustice as being embedded in today’s society, their attitudes and their surrounding environment. The social model focuses on who the adult is as person not what their disability or diagnosis is, the focus is on how to improve and empower the individual’s life and lead a more independent life as possible. Medical model of disability which views adults has having impairment or lacking in some way, this model focuses on impairments that the adult has and finding and acknowledging ways to correct them. The service users at my current place of work are adults with mild learning disability and some of the service users have a dual diagnosis. Both the social and medical model has an impact on their daily life.
If this is not possible, then we are shut away in some specialised institution or isolated at home, where only our most basic needs are met. The emphasis is on dependence, backed up by the stereotypes of disability that call forth pity, fear and patronising attitudes. Usually the impairment is focused on, rather than the needs of the person. The power to change us seems to lie within the medical and associated professions, with their talk of cures, normalisation and science. Often our lives are handed over to them.
M1: Assess the effects on those using the service of THREE different discriminatory practices in health and social care. Marginalisation: treat a person or group as insignificant Marginalisation: GP Surgery An individual using this service may feel that their GP is treating them unfairly because of their sexual orientation. This could have many negative impacts on the individual, such as: feeling upset, angry, worthless, lowered self-esteem, they could feel as though they are losing their self-identity. All of the above could create a barrier for the individual to visit the GP because of the discrimination they are facing. They won’t be able to share their problems with their GP because the GP doesn’t consider the individual as important.