a series of separate disorders that have been placed under this diagnosis. Currently there is not one explanation that can completely explain the cause of why schizophrenia happens, however there are many approaches from both biological and psychological areas that attempt to explain it. One of the biological theories of schizophrenia is the Dopamine Hypothesis. This is a biochemical explanation that suggests the disorder is caused by an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. The
There are various explanations for attachment, but one of the most used by behaviourists is the Learning Theory. This theory suggests that attachment is formed through either classical, which involves learning through association i.e.; an unconditioned stimulus as food can produce pleasure meaning the person who feeds the infant, most likely the caregiver is associated pleasure thus forming an attachment or operant conditioning which is learning through rewards or punishment. The Learning Theory
According to the biological model, there are a few biological things that explain abnormalities; genetics, brain damage, infections, biochemistry and neuroanatomy. The biological model states that some people might be genetically at risk of developing a mental disorder. However, there is only evidence for this in the cases of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. For example, first degree relatives are more likely to develop schizophrenia than second degree relatives. Gottesman & Shield (1972) found
DESCRIBE AND EVALUATE EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS OF GENDER. Cultural and psychological differences between men and women are often referred to be a socialization consequence. Individuals are born in either one of the genders but they become feminine or masculine through a complex developmental process that takes many years to unfold. For example, Women usually look after the babies, while men usually provide food. The evolutionary approach argues that gender role division is a consequence of the
Outline and evaluate the psychological explanations for depression (24) Two psychological explanations of depression are behaviourism and cognitive. Behaviourism explains depression as a learned condition and therefore does not perceive the disorder as a mental illness with a physical cause. Lewinsohn (1974) proposed that depression arises from a lack of positive reinforcement. Some people who are depressed do indeed seem to lack the social skills that enable them to get along with others.
Nikhita Sagar AS Psychology Miss Mahmoud “Describe and evaluate explanations of conformity” 12 marks Normative social influence is the need to be liked and accepted by others in the group. Other people are usually looked to in a group to identify behavior that leads to group acceptance – this may result in the person publicly changing their behavior/views but privately disagreeing/having their own opinions. This is because humans are social creatures and have a fundamental need for social companionship
. Failure to Function Adequately is one definition of abnormality. In this definition , a person is considered abnormal if they are unable to cope with the demands of everyday life. Someone who may be unable to perform the behaviours necessary for day-to-day living such as washing, eating, holding down a job and interacting with peers is considered abnormal. Rosenhan & Seligman's study said that people who cannot function adequately will show certain traits.These traits are: Personal distress
Describe and Evaluate one or more definitions of Abnormality One definition of Abnormality is deviation of Social Norms. Social norms are accepted ways of behaving within a society. They are the unwritten rules that members of a society regard as being normal and acceptable, and any deviation from them can be regarded as abnormal behaviour. Examples include ways of dressing, such as women wearing feminine clothing and men wearing masculine clothing, not appearing naked in public, saying 'please'
behaviours. But how adequate is the learning theory as an explanation for attachment? In essence, the learning theory provides a very plausible and scientifically reliable explanation for attachment. Infants need to eat to survive so it seems right that they should become attached to the one that feeds them, but the learning theory is extremely reductionist and there is evidence to show that infants become attached to people other than the one providing the nourishment. The learning theory seems to
Abnormality arises when a person deviates from the norm, or what is usual. Social norms define accepted, desirable and expected ways in which members of society ought to behave. One approach to identifying abnormality is noticing people who behave in a socially deviant and apparently incomprehensible way. This is therefore regarded as abnormal behaviour because they don’t fit with the expectations of society. For example, a customary behaviour is that people come to work wearing clothes, so if someone