The behaviour changes resulting from this procedure included a loss of fear and a marked taming effect, therefore a reduction in aggression. This concludes that the amygdala is a neural mechanism involved with aggressive behaviour. A strength of this research is that there is supporting evidence from Narabayashi (1972), who found that 43 out of 58 patients showed an improvement in aggressive behaviour after they received operations to have their amygdala removed. This is a strength because converging evidence increases the reliability of the idea that the amygdala is involved in aggression. As there is converging evidence from both human and animal research, this means there is continuity of function.
Researchers suspect that the caudate nuclei form perform this selection function poorly with those with OCD. As suggested by the high level f frontal lobe activity revealed in PET scans, obsessional thinking then persists, often until a compulsive ritual puts an end to it. | One strength of the brain dysfunction theory comes from further empirical support provided by Comer (1998) who suggests that because serotonin plays a key role in the OFC and caudate nuclei, it is likely that low levels of serotonin cause these areas to function poorly. This suggests that there is wider academic credibility for a causal effect between serotonin and regions of the brain. A second strength of the brain dysfunction theory is that it has
The hippocampus on the other side is responsible for the production of corticosteroids (chemicals that produce physiological responses to stimuli). How the mind creates memories is controlled by the hippocampus. So as to work efficiently, the amygdala and the hippocampus rely on each other greatly. The amygdala regulates the responses to stimuli and the hippocampus uses these responses in the formation of both short-term and long-term memories. Damage to the amygdala or hippocampus causes loss of emotions and memory respectively.
nor adrenaline and serotonin mainly. These neurotransmitters act like chemical messages in the nervous systems and are known to be active in parts of the brain associated with reward and punishment. They help to regulate the hypothalamus which is involved in sleep appetite , sexuality and physical movement., and these key areas are affected in depressive disorders. Support for this explanation has come from drug therapy. Anti depressants such as MAOI’s which increase the available amount of nor adrenaline in the brain, were found to be effective for elevating the symptoms of depression.
There are many aspects within the moral development of a child that may have caused this child to act in such a manor. The first of these is reactive aggression. Reactive aggression is an impulsive retaliation to another person’s intentional or non-intentional action. This reaction can be verbal or physical. (Berger,279) A second area to examine in moral development is in the discipline of the child.
This suggest that depression must be passed on through genes if there is a high concordance rate between twins which share the same genetic makeup both having depression. However, biological factors such as the amine hypothesis states that if amines such as serotonin and noradrenalin become unbalanced, they can lead to depression. PET scans support this idea as they show that low levels of serotonin are present in people that are depressed. Other supporting evidence is that drugs such as MAOI’s, which work by increasing the available amount of noradrenalin in the brain, were found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of depression. A problem with this is that it doesn’t state whether it is cause or effect.
There could be some damage to the central nervous system but not very severe or the symptoms that Nick exhibits would be more severe. C. Diabetic neuropathies damage peripheral nerves. Which component of the reflex arc is most likely to be damaged in Nick’s situation? The component of the reflex arc that is most likely to be damaged in Nick’s situation would begin at the sensory neuron. Stimuli is still triggering the receptor but the information from the sensory neuron doesn’t continue the arc to the integrating centers to the motor neurons to the effectors which causes the absence of a reflex.
This suggests that certain genetic factors may lead to abnormal functioning of areas of the brain causing illnesses such as OCD. In addition, there is a high concordance rate between identical twins and they are twice as likely to develop OCD if their twin has the disorder compared to non identical twins. Therefore this also shows how there are certain genes that cause OCD and that these genes may be hereditary. Another explanation for OCD is Neuroanatomical processes involving the OFC caudate nuclei loop. The loops involves the orbital frontal cortex which picks up on situations that we need to worry about and then sends this message on to the Caudate Nucleus which describes whether or not the message is important and if it deems yes, the message is passed on to the thalamus, which acts upon the received message.
Psychologists working from the biological perspective argue that we can inherit a predisposition to anxiety disorders (Morris & Maisto, 2010). In addition, research has shown that there are several parts of the brain that are involved with fear and anxiety, which reinforces the biological connection to anxiety disorders. Many psychologists theorize that anxiety is the result of excessive activation of the brain mechanism responsible for the fight-or-flight response (2011). Fight-or-flight is our brains way of determining the level of danger in a situation. When we are confronted with danger, like the smell of smoke, or a car coming toward us on the street two brain circuits become active and relay information about the danger.
The right hemisphere is believed to process the central aspects of a situation, and the left the finer details. This was verified by giving the volunteers propranolol, a beta-blocker which dampens activation of the amygdala and weakens recall of emotionally arousing memories. Men then found it harder to remember the gist of the films, and women found it harder to recall details. A hemispheric difference in electrical response to emotional material can be detected in the sexes at 300 milliseconds, long before they have time to interpret what they have seen. These discoveries may have implications for the treatment of stress and mental disorders (Cahill).