Describe and Evaluate Cross Cultural Variations in Attachments

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Descirbe and Evaluate Cross Cultural Variations in attachment (12 marks) Due to the fact that the ways that people bring up their children can be very different all over the world as we share different attitudes, values and beliefs etc. People emphasize on developing distinct skills and qualities, so attachments formed can be different. For instance, countries like America and Germany would value personal independence and achieve more, whereas interdependence people is valued more in China. The two cultures mentioned are called individualistic culture and collectivist culture respectively. Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg carried out a meta-analysis that collates and analyses data from many studies carried out by other researchers of 32 separate studies in eight different countries over 2000 babies using Ainsworth’s ‘Strange Situation’. To find out about attachments types in different cultures. Participants were then classified into three groups. Generally, Type B (secure attachment) was most common, with Type C least common (the standard pattern). Type C was more common in Israel, China and Japan. Highest Type A attachment was found in Germany but very rare in Japan and Israel. The lowest proportion of Type B (secure attachments) was found in China and the highest in Great Britain. They found a greater variation in attachment patterns within cultures than between cultures. That is, the intra-cultural variation was nearly one-and-a-half times the cross-cultural variation. The weakness is it is an over-simplification to assume that all children are brought up in exactly the same way in a particular country or culture. The findings reflect on the way children are brought up. In Germany, even working mothers are rare; children are encouraged to be independent and self-reliant. Also, greater personal distance is the norm and proximity seeking is not encouraged.

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