Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment. To enhance the survival of their offspring caregiving is also adaptive and we are born to care for our children. He suggests that infants were born with social releasers such as crying and smiling which encourage caregiving. Bowlby also suggests that there is a best time to form an attachment, this is called the sensitive period where infants are most sensitive to development of attachments and Bowlby would suggest that this is when the child is 3-6 months old. However, attachment can still take place at other times but it becomes increasingly difficult.
Outline and Evaluate John Bowlbys evolutionary theory of attachment John Bowlby’s evolutionary theory was proposed in 1953 and suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed, to form attachments with others, because, this will help them to survive and reproduce. Whereas, failure to form attachments could lead to serious long term consequences for the child. The reason as to why Bowlby’s theory is evolutionary is because, in his view, attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved due to its survival value. There are a variety of main points suggested by Bowlby which make this theory so vital. Firstly, he imposed that the attachments are innate; i.e.
3.IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT * According to Darwin (1872) emotions have two purposes; Motivation & communication. The social learning theory by Bandura et al (1963) supports this as stated that, all behaviours are learned by observation and imitation by children, and learns by emotional responses of others whether it is the correct way or not. * Emotions are also linked to attachment and are needed in order to create a strong social bond between i.e. mother and child. Bowlby (1969) therefore supporting that emotional expression is important in children’s development as it effects other aspects of development in children.
Infants in biologically organize their attachment behaviors around the availability of their caregivers. When infants find caregivers to be available in times of need, they tend to develop expectations that caregivers will be there in the future of times needed in the future. Behaviorally, these infants then seek out the comfort they need (Sroufe, 1989) from caregivers with confident expectations that they will be soothed. Such infants are categorized as having secure attachments to caregivers. When caregivers are not responsive to infants’ needs or there are many different caregivers in an infants’ life, infants can develop an insecurity to bond because they cannot identify who the main caregiver is supposed
Stages of the Stepparent Child Relationship billy williams hinds community college Abstract The interaction between a child and a new stepparent can be considerably more complicated than the average relationship. The six stages of an interpersonal relationship are still present, but a stepparent is thrust into a position of authority, and may be perceived as a replacement for the biological parent. This paper attempts to explain some of the confusion, internal conflict, resentment and frustration that may stem from the remarriage of a parent. Some child-stepparent relationships do not start out under the best of circumstances, but functional relationships can develop. Ideally this paper will give a snapshot of the complex mechanisms of a stepparent-child dynamic as they relate to the six stages of a an interpersonal relationship.
Theoretical Basis and Research Attachment theory explains the role that the dynamic relationship between a child and caregiver plays in shaping an individual’s interpersonal relationships (Bowlby, 1969). One of the central tenets of attachment theory is the concept that children form internal working models of attachment based on the children’s thoughts about themselves and the children’s expectation about their caregiver’s availability and responsiveness (Bowlby, 1973). Working models allow children to develop cognitive schemas about themselves and others in order to predict and plan for the responsiveness of the caregiver. Early attachment relationships teach children how to regulate internal and external stimulation. In response to fear, children develop patterned behaviors in order to manage the stress, difficulty, and overwhelming situations.
So, when an infant forms an attachment it is responding to the love and attention it has received, language comes from imitating the speech of others and cognitive development depends on the degree of stimulation in the environment and, more broadly, on the civilization within which the child is reared. Examples of an extreme nature positions in psychology include Bowlby's (1969) theory of attachment, which views the bond between mother and child as being an innate process that ensures survival”. (www.simplypsychology.org) According to this theory, it is the combination of societal and biological influences that affect behavior in our children. Since the brain is not fully developed at birth, the environment in which the child is exposed gives opportunity to further enhance or, consequently, inhibit many areas of development. Neurobiologist have found that early long term stress can actually change the brain functioning and, in turn, create an overly sensitive nervous system.
John Bowlby’s theory of Attachment John Bowlby is an evolutionary psychologist within the filed of developmental psychology. His theory provides an evolutionary perspective towards attachment combining Freud’s views on the importance of the maternal care (psychoanalytic approach) and the ethnologists’ views on imprinting. Bowlby’s theory suggested that attachment is an innate and adaptive process. An infant is genetically programmed in a way for survival and has been ascribed skills such as sucking, grasping, crying: known as “social releasers”. Bowlby believed that a mother has similar genetic coding that allows her to react instinctive to, and respond to her infants needs.
This is due to the infant’s primary attachment figure causing the child to develop a particular internal working model of relationships leading the infant to expect that it will have similar relationships to that of their attachment figure in later life. Additionally the child will eventually model the caregiving behaviour of the attachment figure from whom they will obtain knowledge about how to care for the person they are in the relationship with. A sexuality system also relates to their early attachment style, where for example an avoidant relationship may result in them finding it pleasurable to have sex without the involvement of love. Supporting research for the influence of parent-child relationships is provided by Fraley (1998). A meta-analysis was completed displaying correlations between early attachment types and later relationships ranging from 0.1 to 0.5.
Likewise, Mary Ainsworth has contributed her “strange situation” in order to measure the quality of attachment and developed different categories that describe various levels of attachment between child and caregiver. The theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth are two that have greatly impacted and influenced the research of developmental and attachment psychology. Since their contributions, researchers have added on by developing connections between environmental factors that may also influence an individual’s development and explain obstacles of adult interaction and interpersonal relationships. Theories of Attachment John Bowlby defined attachment as the emotional bond that a child develops with their primary caregiver. His theory was based on the idea that attachment was an instinctive and evolutionary function in order to ensure the survival of the species.