The children that were attending camp were placed in living groups. The observers, 137 staff members, watched over kids that were referred to Wediko for variety of different behavior and social problems. Different tactics used by observers to access the children were: “Peer Inventory, Study 2, nomination procedure, Adult assessments.” Peer inventory was used to rate each child’s popularity. Study 2 was used to see child’s perception of himself and behavior shown by children such as aggression, withdrawal and prosocial. Nomination procedure was an test children were given to show what they really thought of others, the children went into the test knowing that no other children would find out their answers.
Atticus uses this approach not only with his children, but with all of Maycomb, and yet, for all of his mature treatment of Jem and Scout, he patiently recognizes that they are children and that they will make childish mistakes and assumptions. Ironically, Atticus’s one insecurity seems to be in the child-rearing department, and he often defends his ideas about raising children to those more experienced and more traditional. Atticus Finch isn’t just an ordinary father. He teaches his children things no parent of that time period, or even our time period would even think of doing. Atticus tries to show his children how the world works from other people’s point of view.
One school of thought is that we learn to theorise through implicit teaching, observing others (Gopnik & Wellman, 2012) and the closeness of living together (Davies & Stone, 1995). This is exemplified through Wimmer and Perner’s (1983) Maxi story. In the story, Maxi has placed some chocolate in a kitchen cupboard and leaves the room. While Maxi is away, a second character moves the chocolate to another cupboard and leaves. Upon Maxi’s return the child is asked where Maxi will look for the chocolate – the correct answer being where he left
Furthermore, Vygotsky’s socioeconomic model is discussed, with emphasis on the role of language and the cognitive influence of parent-child tutoring interactions and more specifically scaffolding tutoring. Similarities and differences between the two central concepts are also a subject of discussion. Finally, some evidence for the impact of peer-to-peer relationships in toddlers is presented. Based on the existing literature the thesis of this essay is that intra and interpersonal processes are both influential when it comes to forming children’s social and cognitive skills. One of the fundamental theories in the field of social and cognitive development is that of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980).
Piaget (1932) concentrated on young children and was interested in the child’s understanding of right and wrong and how it developed with age. Piaget had two ways in which he gained insight into children’s moral judgments and developments. Firstly, Piaget gave children a game of marbles to play with him, while he was playing Piaget noted how the rules were understood and obeyed while playing. To do this Piaget pretended not to know how to play and started asking questions such as “where do rules come from?” and “Who made them?” From this Piaget notice a few noticeable differences between the different ages and their moral and cognitive development being that the children aged 5-9 although not playing by the rules thought that they were sacred and came from god, whereas children aged 10+ played by the rules and had the understanding that they were something that was agreed by all players before starting. Secondly, Piaget read the children stories, these involved the importance of intentions when judging how wrong the character was.
This is in contrast to the William Corsaro study, which is directed more towards looking at how children communicate with each other within their own social circle. He also studied children’s personal feelings towards friendships. In an interview with William Corsaro he said that his aim was to understand what the experience of childhood and friendship was like from a child’s point of view (Interview with William Corsaro 2010). From reading this it is clear that although the researchers were all interested in studying children’s friendships, they were looking at it from completely different angles. The Bigelow and La Gaipa (1975) study is a more general look at the subject in contrast to the Corsaro study which seems to be a more personal and individual based study.
Describe and evaluate the psychodynamic approach Psychodynamic psychologists assume that our behaviour is determined by unconscious forces of which we are unaware. Each manifest (surface) thought, utterance or behaviour hides a latent(hidden) motive or intention. The latent motives for our behaviour reflect our instinctive biological drives and our early experiences, particularly before the age of five. Most particularly, it is the way we are treated by our parents as children that shapes our adult behaviour. Sigmund Freud developed an approach on abnormality that highlighted how human personality and psychosexual development in childhood can cause abnormality.
Behaviourists want results, by which they can check measure and observe on the stimulus and the reacted response. McLeod, (2007) suggests humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Essentially, these terms refer the same approach in psychology. This relates to the belief on genetics and the experiences we go through in life are different from each other. Through ‘ethics’
Lesson 5 Mandatory Graded Assignment Getting Ready for Inclusion Negative reinforcement occurs when something unpleasant has stopped due to the action taken. This may lead to the child using the unpleasant behavior to achieve his/her desire. An example would be a child learning how to toilet train and refuses to go to the bathroom in the toilet. The negative reinforcement would be if the parent or caregiver gives up and puts a diaper or pull up on the child. The child learns that if he or she refuses, the parent will allow the diaper or pull up.
However, there were a few children whom were dissatisfied with telling the time, this is also knows as cognitive conflict, as stated in Piaget’s theory. Piaget believed that children should not be hurried through learning as this would have a negative effect. So I made sure that I didn’t rush any of the kids. “Piaget referred to children at play as ‘active participants’ in their own learning’ he believed that children use their first-hand and previous experiences to learn” (Marian Beaver et el, Child Care and Education, 2008, page 54) Piaget thought that children made assumptions based on experiences – he called these schemas. This influenced my planning of theoretical perspectives on aspects of practice.