Declarative memory is a memory for specific information or facts, which can be sub-divided into Semantic storage for language and general knowledge. This is the kind of memory that is tested in experimental work. The other sub-division is Episodic which is storage for personal events and people. This memory may not be reliable because of memory distortions. In 2000 Schachter et al.
Some thoughts and behaviors may cause a person some discomfort and are suppressed into the unconscious as not to cause anxious feels when they are recalled to the conscious mind. We try not to dwell on thought that cause us anxiety or discomfort so we try to put unhealthy thoughts somewhere where we do not have to think about them. The conscious mind is where we are now. Awake, alert and communicating with others and we are aware of what we are doing and why. The two types of consciousness our text discusses; are the perceptual consciousness and the mental structure of our brain.
[these require focused attention?] This led to the development of two-process theories; which suggest that automatic and controlled processes operate simultaneously, so that tasks are “automatically” carried [could be considered more of a continuum?] Kahneman (1973, as cited in Edgar, 2007) suggested that there is a central processor within the brain which is of limited capacity and that some information cannot be processed. [there is too much input from our senses to be able to cope with] Kahneman explained how the brain acts as a physical filter and defined attention as mental effort; limited resources being allocated
Describe and evaluate cue dependent theory of forgetting. (12) Your evaluation should include: • Comparison with one other theory of forgetting • Strengths and/or weaknesses of the cue dependent theory Description of cue dependent theory • When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval then forgetting may occur/eq; • Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information that guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the contents page of a book/eq; • These memory cues may be necessary to access information that is available but not accessible/eq; • There are two types of cues, the first is context which are environmental cues such as your classroom/eq; • For example when someone goes upstairs to get something and forgets what it was, they might remember again when they are back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought about it/eq; • The second is state which are cues internal to the person such as being excited or afraid/eq; • For example if you learn something when in a relaxed mood but cannot recall it when in a tense mood/eq Evaluation of cue dependent theory • Cue-dependent forgetting can be supported by the fact that most people find that their recollections of childhood become fainter as they grow older. However, if they return to the area they lived in as children, the streets, houses and school often serve to bring the past alive/eq; • The physical environment of childhood can act as an effective cue proving that many memory traces established a long time ago can be retrieved/eq; • The problem is we don't know what information is in the memory trace and which is extracted from the retrieval cue. So it may be difficult to know in some circumstances whether a true memory is accessed as a result of a cue or if the memory is a reconstruction/eq; • Baddeley argues the effects of
Outline and evaluate the model of working memory In this essay I am going outline what is working memory in terms of psychology and evaluate it in terms of both advantages and limitation of the working memory model. The fact that short-term memory contains both new information and information retrieved from long-term memory has led some psychologists to prefer the term ‘working memory’ (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974; Baddeley, 1986,1992) Working memory model is an alternative to the multi-store model; it is a far more complex explanation of short-term memory. Baddeley and Hitch argued that the short-term memory was made up of several subsystems, each of them have a specialized function, rather than the short-term memory model being a single inflexible store. According to Martin, G. N, Carlson, N.R & Buskist, W. (2006) “According to Baddeley, working memory is a short-term memory system that allows us to retain material for current use and not just for transport into long-term memory.” Baddeley suggested this short-term memory as having three independent components that allow us to store temporarily visuo-spatial material and verbal material. These components were so-called the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad and the Phonological Loop.
The characteristics of primary memory include how forgetting occurs, how memories are represented, and how much information can be stored (Willingham, D. T., 2007). What is the process of memory from perception to retrieval? What happens when the process is compromised? Long-term memory retrieval requires revisiting the nerve pathways the brain formed. The strength of those pathways determines how quickly you recall the memory.
The theory levels of processing was proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) which rejects the idea of the dual coding theory that was proposed by Paivio (1971). The dual coding theory states that characteristics of memories are determined by either the short term memory store or the long term memory store, whereas the levels of processing theory proposes that information can be processed in multiple ways that depend on the level of depth of processing involved with the memory. For example, a ‘shallow’ memory will lead to a fragile memory trace which in turn is more likely to be forgotten than a memory that is more durable with more meaning. There are three ways in which information can be processed: Structural processing, phonemic processing and sematic processing. Structural and phonemic processing are two forms of shallow processing and sematic processing is a type of deep processing.
Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process In my answer, an appraisal will be made weighing up the strengths and limitations on the flashbulb memory theory and how the theory affects the cognitive process of memory. According to the theory, flashbulb memories form in situations where we encounter surprising and highly emotional information. It is maintained by means of overt rehearsal, such as discussion with others, and covert behaviour, such as private rehearsing. Flashbulb memories are different than normal memories as they are more vivid, consistent, and accurate and they last longer. When a flashbulb memory is made, neural mechanism triggers an emotional arousal because the event is important or shocking.
Where the information is detected initially by the senses and then enters the sensory memory. Below is an example of what Atkinson and Shiffrin first model looked like Information is detected by the sense organs from the environment and enters the sensory memory. If attention is paid to the input or the information that is being received, only then does it enter the short term memory (STM). Information from the STM is transferred to the long-term memory only if that information is rehearsed. If rehearsal does not occur, then information is forgotten.
This can also have a major effect due to Amnesia, it can affect recollection of experiences occurring either following to the appearance of the disorder, memory loss.113 While the hippocampus and other structures in the medial temporal lobe mediate the consolidation and storage of new memories and that it seems like if some error in memory did occur, it would be in these areas of the brain Keywords: Memory, Amnesia, Hippocampus Struggling to Remember Memories Both from the Past and Present Why is it so difficult to remember? The brain gathers, processes, and stores information in a number of ways. When we perceive something, a set of cells in our brain is triggered in a specific sequence. If not fully pursued, the perception fades and the cells return to their original state (1). However if the thought or perception is ‘entertained,’ the cells interact, forming a network of communication and signal transmission.