Define Motivation. Critically Evaluate Contribution of Mc Gregor to Motivation. Essay

255 WordsOct 21, 20142 Pages
Motivation has been defined as: • The psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. • A predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs. • An internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need . “Motivation is operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals” McGregor developed two theories of human behavior at work: Theory and X and Theory Y. He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviors in between. Theory X workers could be described as follows: - Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible - Individuals, who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led - Individuals who desire security The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as: - Consider effort at work as just like rest or play - Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment - Individuals who seek responsibility (if they are motivated0 The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment (or culture) where workers can show and develop their

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