* Is the sample representative? Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not ensure it. It is used to ascribe properties or relations to types based on tokens (i.e., on one or a small number of observations or experiences); or to formulate laws based on limited observations of recurring phenomenal patterns. Deductive reasoning is dependent on its premises. That is, a false premise can possibly lead to a false result, and inconclusive premises will also yield an inconclusive conclusion.
In addition, the elections are held at regular intervals, which ensures that the representatives are accountable to the electorate. Furthermore, there is a pluralistic system which means that the electorate have a choice of candidates and political parties, regarded as an essential element of a genuine democracy. For example, in the General Election of May, 2010, the UK electorate had the opportunity to vote for candidates from minority parties, such as the Greens and UKIP, as well as the major parties such as Labour, Conservative and
Kumar Bhattacharyya The Paradox of the Philosopher-King In this paper I shall delve into Plato’s The Republic and analyze his Just state, with particular interest in his assertion that the most ideal ruler would be a ‘Philosopher-King’. Plato hints at the impossibility of this Philosopher-King, yet sets strong arguments as to why a Philosopher King is the most appropriate ruler. He does this through his definitions of what it means to be a ‘Just’ state, and how a philosopher best embodies those qualities that would maintain the Justice, and prevent any Injustice from seeping in. Plato also supports his assertion through his epistemology and metaphysics, which serve to further strengthen his argument. I will begin by recounting the demographic structures that are present in Plato’s “Just” state, and by exploring his epistemological and metaphysical claims, highlight the impossibility of such a ruler.
Aaron Clemons XBCOM 275 May 30, 2013 Instructor: Jade Bunke What are some reasons you might consider data or information to lack validity, credibility, or reliability? Explain your answer by using examples. There are many reasons that information cannot be reliable and lack credibility. The first of these reasons is lake of supporting evidence. When conducting research for an essay or for a new business proposition the researcher must have evidence that supports their writing from sources that can back up their proposed ideas.
Week 3 – Confirmation Bias\ Confirmation bias influences both our perceptions about what has already happened, as well as our predictions of what has yet to occur. Confirmation bias, also referred to as perceptions and predictions, also have the ability to generate their own confirmations. Overconfidence has been known to initiate the development of confirmation bias. Overconfidence begins with the lack of knowledge regarding a particular topic or task, at the same time expressing much knowledge of it. If an overconfident person were asked to rank their knowledge of a task or operation in which they actually no nothing about, that person would respond with resounding affirmation of knowing they can complete the task being discussed.
Empiricism vs Rationalism The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw complicated debate between empiricists and rationalists, in which physics, mathematics, theology and logic were called into discussion. The sources of out knowledge can be divided into two different sources, what enter our mind through the use of senses, and what enters our mind through the use of reasoning. Empiricism is the idea that knowledge comes from the sense, while rationalism is the notion that knowledge is discovered by the reason. In order to gain knowledge, use of sense and reason must coexist together. In my opinion, one cannot gain any knowledge without sense and reasoning.
How do we know things? There are different ways of knowing; through emotions, feelings, sense perceptions etc. We use logic, deduction, and induction, to reach conclusions we think are true. Conclusions reached in this way are considered more certain than sense perceptions on their own. In the other hand, if such reasoned conclusions are only built originally upon a organization of sense perceptions, then the arguments what are being considered.
Furthermore, an opinion piece regarding the adoption of a particular metaphysical notion will be voice, and placed under inspection for error. The first metaphysical view we shall examine is compatiblism. Compatiblism, in a broad sense of the word, is a notion which allows the belief in determinism and free will alike. That is, any free will that one may truly consider ‘worth having’ (Kane 32-33). Following this understanding, we may find such a notion contained within Kane’s first case study, which indentified a young man, troubled by past (determined) circumstance, and who supposedly (freely) chose his tragic fate (Kane 68).
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Everest University Basic Critical Thinking Miranda Smith August 25, 2013 Deductive reasoning is an argument form in which one reasons from premises that are known or assumed to be true to a conclusion that follows necessarily from the premises. Inductive reasoning is an argument form in which one reasons from premises that are known or assumed to be true to a conclusion that is supported by the premises but does not necessarily follow from them. Most deductive arguments are structured as syllogisms. This is an argument form that consists of two supporting premises and a conclusion. Inductive reasoning shows that something is probable but not certain.
Moore believes this is a legitimate argument based on his criteria for a proof. The first requirement is that the premises must be different from the conclusion. The second requirement is that the premises must be demonstrated. The third requirement is that the conclusion must follow the premises. Moore also notes that there may other requirements that he does not even know that could be needed to make a proof.