Deductive and Inductive Arguments

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The differences between deductive and inductive arguments are, deductive arguments follow the format of coming to two premise and one conclusion, i.e. Premise: All men are mortal Premise: Socrates is a man Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is a man. When you combine premise A with Premise you reach the conclusion. (Chaffee, 2012) There are multiple combinations to make this format work. Inductive reasoning is set up to provide evidence that makes it more or less probable (but not certain) that the conclusion is true. (Chaffee, 2012) This is an argument form in which one reasons from premises that are known or assumed to be true to a conclusion that is supported by the premises but does not follow logically from them. (Chaffee, 2012) This format leads into Empirical Generalization; this is a general statement about the entire group made on the basis of observing some members of the group. (Chaffee, 2012) In this portion of inductive reasoning you need a sample and you need to know what it is, you then need to know if the sample is sufficient of large enough for the expected outcome and then you need to know if the sample is representative of the actual outcome. If these three factors are present in this type of reasoning then the researcher are able to predict with potent accuracy the outcome of different things, they have even been able to successfully predict who will win the Presidential election this way. (Chaffee, 2012) The differences between the two forms of reasoning are when using deductive reasoning you formulate an outcome based on your own personal opinions and feelings about the situation. When using inductive reasoning, you need to know what you are looking at, why you are looking at it and how many of what you are looking at in order to acquires an accurate outcome. References: Chaffee, J. (2012) Thinking Critically, (10ed), Wadsworth

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