Death Time Estimation Analysis

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1.1 Introduction to death time estimation In crime scene investigations, time of death (TOD) estimation of the deceased person is a crucial task for a forensic investigator (Rodrigo, 2014). In cases where death occurred in a suspicious or unexplainable manner, TOD estimation is especially important because suspects could defend themselves using alibi, which is by proving that they were not at the place where the crime was committed at the estimated time. Besides that, from the point of view of Henßge & Madea (2004), crime scene investigations become most effective if the TOD is estimated immediately and communicated to the police at the death scene. Despite its importance, the methods of death time estimation and their reliability has received…show more content…
This definition is said to be inappropriate due to the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation procedures, which sometimes may be able to restart heartbeat and breathing. Consequently, the concept of ‘brain death’ was introduced, which is defined as the cessation of brain activity and is irreversible. However, the determination of brain death requires the use sophisticated medical instruments. In a death scene, forensic investigators will not have access to these instruments, so they will have to rely on the signs of cessation of heartbeat or breathing and signs of death such as muscle rigidity to pronounce a person as dead even though there might still be continued lower brain stem activity (Smart & Kaliszan, 2012). Hence, the terms ‘time of death’ or ‘death time’ in this study refers to the time when the victim’s heartbeat and breathing…show more content…
In this study, a double exponential cooling model which is in the form of first order ODE proposed by Marshall and Hoare will be used to estimate the death time of dead bodies. 1.6 Objective of study The objectives of this study are 1.6.1. To estimate time of death of human (excluding cases where dead body was exposed to fire or found in water) based on body cooling using a first order ordinary differential equation (Marshall and Hoare’s double exponential cooling model). 1.6.2. To write a program using C++ language that calculates the estimated time of death based on body temperature readings and non-temperature parameters such as weight and surface area of the dead body. 1.7 Scope of study This study focuses on the particular solution of the first order ordinary differential equation (Marshall and Hoare’s double exponential cooling model) where the particular solution can be used to obtain the length of time since death until the discovery of the

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