To what extent do the ‘grand theories’ discussed in Book 1, Chapter 2 take account of the role of social experiences in child development? Throughout much of history children were often viewed as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to their cognitive, emotional, physical, social and educational growth. Today, recognising such things is essential because they can have either a positive or negative impact on a child’s development. There are four ‘grand theories’ in child development: Behaviourism, Social Learning Theory, Constructivism and Social Constructivism. They are referred to as Grand Theories because they offer explanations of child development as a whole, rather than in specific areas.
The second of Hume’s points is that the causal principle is doubtful. His evidence for this is that we can conceive of things without a cause therefore things without a cause are possible this is also backed up by Mackie who says that the causal principle has no evidence and only exists in a methodological sense. However this argument also has severe faults that discredit it. If the arguments from causality are questionable then that means that the arguments from conceivability are questionable as well. This could also mean that a logically necessary truth could be conceived as false if you don’t completely understand it.
Wrong Amounts Entering the wrong amount for one, but not both, entries in a trial balance will cause the trial balance to be unequal. This can result from an incorrect entry or an arithmetic mistake. Arithmetic Error To check whether a trial balance is equal, you must add up the sum of each column. An error in arithmetic will give a result that makes the trial balance appear unequal. This may involve entering a different number than the one that appears on the trial balance into a
Actively encourage and support learners in becoming independent. Will lead learning “guided” groups, modelling concepts and language that the adult leading the learning has used. Will alter an activity or change the apparatus if an activity does not meet the learners needs to enable them to achieve or exceed the expected outcome. Are acutely aware of learners capabilities/prior learning/understanding and plan very effectively to build on these. The areas that I have assessed as “good” and therefore need improving are: Enable learners to access resources appropriately – I feel that I need to make more time to be able to show the children how they can get the best from the resources that they have available to them.
Also parents had to give a description of the capability of that child and if they did know then the professionals were unable to help. In my opinion this is a much better way of working together as all families can be helped in the best way. The “Department of Education” also outlines that the “Multi-agency working provides benefits for children, young people and families because they receive tailor-made support in the most efficient way”. Department of education (Accessed 20.12.12) they go one to say about the ways in which this co-operation is best fitted in this work ethic. One key example is early intervention; they are able to intervene with a situation almost immediately depending if the evidence gathered and shared to other professionals shows the Childs safety is being compromised.
The use of structure assessment tool inform decisions about the most effective way to meet the young person’s needs Mitchell (2006) This scale was used however to gain a basic knowledge of outcome whilst not overlooking the family meetings as a measure of outcome. The scale has been negatively described before as having this and this. It is important to consider to what extent changed on an outcome measure indicate a change thta children and their families’ expirence as meaningful. Camhs working realies heaily upon user interaction so and so say of this practice ‘rating of complaints defined by the patient is a type of individualised scale that may be used as an outcome measure and may be very meaningful in clinical
It is important to note that if children feel that they are being manipulated or controlled by the rewards, their behavior will likely not change effectively. Indeed, as explained by the over-justification effect, punishments and rewards are not effective if children only behave well in order to get a reward or avoid a punishment. Rather than using rewards and punishments, a more effective method is to use authentic activities; activities that are similar to situations students are likely to experience in the real world. The book suggests that if educators used more authentic activities, students would be more likely to create a productive knowledge base and use that knowledge later on in their
We can refer reliability as being a consistency, stabile and dependable of a results or measurement we got or obtain from an assessment task. In other words as McMillan (2004) stated that it is a result that shows similar performance at different times. When we take into account factors that contribute to the students work not been reliable, we can assume it may be factors such as the health of the child, the general ability of the children and motivation of the child. When marking the recount of the children's work there were many reliable observation that i made that could have affected how reliable my marking was. For instance being aware of my personal bias when it comes to going over a child recount.
Another main controversy is with Piaget’s broad grouping of the stages affecting cognitive tasks. A more accurate depiction of children’s development would be to state that “children’s skills develop in different ways on different tasks and that their experience can have a strong influence on the pace of development” (Slavin, 2009,
One reason is to discriminate between very young children with delays in motor, movement skills and their peers without delays. A second reason is that delays in movement are often the first indicator that a child may have a more general developmental disability . Delays in movement frequently appear more early in life than do delays in domains such as language or cognition. A third reason to focus on motor,movement assessment is that early problems often are related to developmental difficulties in other areas. Movement limitations may compromise children's abilities to communicate, interact, and explore their environments (Gallahue 1999).