Darwins Theory of Natural Selection

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Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) an English naturalist is a remarkable figure in the evolutionary history. He was associated with the Christ College, Cambridge where he joined a team of scientists for exploring the world. He undertook a global voyage for a period of five years in a ship H.M.S. Beangle and discovered Galapagos Islands of South America. During the journey Darwin collected flora and fauna from different part of the world. After returning home, he spent nearly 20 years in analysing the collected materials while preparing a theory of natural selection. Darwin received a correspondence from another scientist A.R. Wallace (1958) working on the flora and fana of malyan archipelago. Incident the views of Darwin coincided with that of Wallace and he was prompted to write a book "Origin of species" in which he was vividly explained "Theory of natural selection". Popularly his theory is known as "Darwinism". Darwin's theory is based on the following fundamental facts: (1) Over production (2) Struggle for existence (3) Variation (4) Survival of the fittest and (5) Natural selection (1) Over Production: Every plant and animal has a tendency to produce in geometrical progression (Malathian concept). If all the offsprings of an organism survive, then in a few generations the whole earth will be occupied by the individuals of a single species. Some example of over production can be cited as: i. A bacterium can give rise to millions of new bacteria in a single day it produced by binary fission. ii. A fern plant produces millions of spores and it all of them germinate and produce new plants, they will cover the earth in few years. iii. An evening primerose plan produces 118000 seeds per year. In this rate the number will be enormous in few generations. iv. Elephant is the slowest breeder among animals. In its 100 years life span and
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