Natural Selection is simply as Darwin defines it "the preservation of favourable variations and the rejections of injurious variations". It is the process by which evolutionary change occurs in organisms over a long period of time. The organisms that are well adapted to their environment have a greater chance of surviving the test of time than those less adapted organisms, which eventually become extinct or die out. The key aspect of this theory is the principle of preservation. Linguistics is the study of the nature, structure and variation of language.
Charles Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection continues to be controversial. Organisms are able to adapt to their environment over a period of time. Through analyzing Charles Darwin’s essay, Darwin implies that natural selection is an ongoing process that will never end. Natural selection is ongoing. “No country can be named in which all the native inhabitants are now so perfectly adapted to each other and to the physical conditions under which they live, that none of them could be still be better adapted or improved..” (Darwin 408).
Prior to reproduction alleles are separated so that specialized reproductive cells called gametes contain only one allele form each pair. At fertilization gametes fuse each contributing one allele for each trait to the new offspring. Individuals carry only two alleles for every gene. These two alleles may be identical in which case the individual is said to be homozygous for that trait. Sometimes the two alleles may differ and hence the
Bowlby built on this idea and believed that humans also have a critical period for attachment. If attachment was not made by 2.5 years, infants would never be able to form an attachment. Although Lorenz’s study appears to support Bowlby’s ideas, it is important to remember that the cognitive abilities of geese will differ greatly from that of human infants and therefore it is difficult to generalise the results to humans. It can also be argued that depriving animals of an attachment is unethical. Sluckin contradicted Lorenz’s critical period and proposed that there was a ‘sensitive period’ which stated that if no attachment was made in the first 24 hours it could still be made after this time.
Also, if this held true, then eventually all organisms would become more alike in each generation. Charles Darwin’s pangenesis: The pangenesis theory, adopted and adapted from Hippocrates's theory, implies that the whole of parental organisms contribute to heredity. Darwin emphasized that only cells could regenerate new tissues or generate new organisms. He said that atomic sized gemmules formed by cells would diffuse and collect in the reproductive organs. These gemmules, that could be transmitted from parent to offspring were the reason behind the inherited characteristics in the next
Darwinism and Natural Selection, this is a more difficult topic to defend, because these people or beings have to be created in order to survive by adaptation. Since evolution is simply the change in population based on the surroundings and changing lifestyles in order to stay alive, this could very well be a credible argument to follow. Success in evolution can lead into new varieties and new species, on the other hand, failure may lead to extinction of the certain species. There are four main points of evidence when it comes to evolution. The change in fossil record in earlier species.
In multi-cellular organisms with reproductive cells, mutations can be further divided into sub mutations which potentially pass on to descendants through reproductive cells. Mutations create a lot of variation within the gene pool. Deleterious mutations can be reduced in frequency in the gene pool by natural selection, while more beneficial mutations may accumulate and result in adaptive evolutionary changes. Mutation is generally accepted by the scientific community as the mechanism upon which natural selection acts, proving the advantageous new traits that survive and multiply in offspring or disadvantages traits that die out with weaker organisms. Neutral mutations are defined as mutations whose effects do not influence the organism whatsoever.
In sexual reproduction new individuals are produced by the fusion of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote. Sperm are male gametes, ova are female gametes. Some advantages of sexual reproduction are that it allows for genetic variation due to the joining of two different individuals. In a sexual population, some of the creatures born have lots of mutations and some have few. If the ones with lots of mutations die, then sex purges
Early views on intelligence stressed the importance of adaptation to the environment and initially focussed on the studies of animals. Indeed, these early views considered the animal kingdom as the scale with very small creatures such as insects at the bottom and man (and ultimately, God) at the top. Theorists of intelligence have traditionally fallen into two camps: single or “g”, or multiple. The so-called "g-theorists" appear to be totally convinced that there is a single general factor of intelligence and many of these regard g-theory as fact. Charles Spearman (1863-1945), a pioneer of mental testing, proposed that an individual’s performance of intelligence tests was determined by a common factor that he termed “g” (general intelligence) and factors that were specific to the different kinds of tests, which he labelled “s” (specific factor).