Avogadro submitted this essay to a French journal, Jean-Claude Delamétherie's (Journal of Physics, Chemistry and Natural History) so it was written in French, not Italian. In 1820, he became professor of physics at the University of Turin. After the downfall of the French Emperor Napoléon in 1815, Piedmont again came under the control of the King of Piedmont-Sardinia, ruling from Turin. Avogadro was active in the revolutionary movements of 1821 against King Victor Emmanuel I. As a result, he lost his chair in 1823 (or, as the university officially declared, it was "very glad to allow this interesting scientist to take a rest from heavy teaching duties, in order to be able to give better attention to his researches") Eventually, King Charles Albert granted a Constitution (Statuto Albertino) in 1848.
Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17. He originally wanted to study law, he eventually changed his major and started studying Medicine. He studied philosophy, physiology, and zoology, He graduated in 1881 and in the beginning of 1882 he started work at Vienna General Hospital were he studied the cerebral anatomy. He studied aphasia which led to first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, which would go on to be published in 1891. Freud eventually resigned from his position he held in the hospital and started studying nervous disorders.
Darwin also used fossils in support of common descent. There was fossil record at the time and he collected fossils while on the Beagle voyage. He observed that many of the fossilised species did not exist anymore and had evolved (Darwin., 1859). All of these observations that Darwin made support his idea that species share a common
Heather Poland Med. History Mr. Hysell March 4, 2013 Adelard of Bath—A Questioning Spirit Adelard of Bath was a teacher of Arabic science who was born in England in 1080 and died in 1145. Adelard studied in France and traveled to numerous Muslim lands and soon built an outlook on Aristotle’s philosophic approach. Adelard gave greater attention to the natural world and what it consisted of. Adelard’s nephew was responding to Adelard’s thoughts of Aristotle and God in the article Natural Questions.
The second article I read was “William Clark's World: Describing America in an Age of Unknowns,” by Peter J. Kastor. This article about how Meriwether Lewis and William Clark who explored the newly obtained American land. Kastor wrote this article to inform his reader about the obstacles the two explorers had to over come to maintain accurate reports about the new land. The article focuses on the Territory of Louisiana rather than the negotiations and political views of the land. After reading the two articles by Peter Kastor and Frank Brencher, both about the Louisiana Purchase, both also had different views.
Brandon Velazquez 8/17/15 AP World History 9 Summer Assignment Part A Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, is a memoir by James Diamond about how he seeks to prove that it is in fact geography, not biology or race, which made the cultural disparities of different societies. Throughout the book he explains the accounts of over 13,000 years of human evolutions and social development. It all started when Diamond was studying birds in New Guinea and met a friend named Yali, who had asked him “Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo (goods and technology) and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?” Diamond’s search for this answer by examining millions of years of history, following humans as they evolve biologically, and then concentrating on specific representative societies to explain his findings. To state the difference between developing cultures, Diamond emphasizes the effects of food production, writing, technology, government, and religion. The he shows, in his opinion, why the differences among these various cultures occurred.
It had the appearance that if the edges of the continental shelves were closer they would match as if they were a puzzle. ” American Frank Taylor was working on the same problem at the same time, but they were unaware of each other, much like Darwin and Wallace (Lee, 2009)”. Dr. Wegener was the firm believer of the two and received the credit for the theory. The first presentation of Wegener’s work was at a geology meeting in 1912, but the meeting report shows no evidence of this discussion. He published two papers in this same year on the subject.
He chose an appropriate model organism to study (the pea plant). He could control which parents were involved in a mating. Like it was mentioned before, Mendel was not the first scientist interested in studying the basic mechanisms of heredity, these factors only made him successful because of his conclusion, whereas other before him failed. Mendel experimented on a bunch of different pea plants in 1856 when the science was on its initial stage of development. When he did this experiment meiosis and DNA were unknown to scientists.
The work of these scientists were characterized by an intense, often reckless, personal commitment to discovery, which was often view as rebellious. The culmination of the personalities of the scientists of this age and their discoveries creates a science that is Romantic. The work of Joseph Banks on his voyage on the Endeavor provides the first scope to examine Romantic science during this period. Holmes acknowledges the rebellious spirit of Banks: "Instead, the twenty-two-year-old Banks bought himself a berth on HMS Niger, and embarked on a strenuous seven-month botanical tour to the bleak shores of Labrador and Newfoundland. The Professor of Botany at Edinburgh wrote to him with some astonishment that it was ‘rumoured that you was going to the country of the Eskimaux Indians to gratify your taste for Natural Knowledge’.
In their case, careful - not to say, meticulous - description of what was observed led rapidly to the development of botany, biology, zoology; sciences dedicated to the creation (or discovery) of theories which made sense of the flora and fauna. The theory of evolution is, of course, the classic nineteenth-century example. Translation theory, on the other hand, appears still not to have taken this second step and remains, as it were, in the hands of the 'naturalists'. We therefore wish now (a) to