CO2 from the atmosphere diffuses into the leaf through the stomata into the stroma of the chloroplast. In the stroma, the CO2 combines with a 5-carbon compound ribulose bisphosphate (RUBP). Combination of CO2 and RUBP produces two molecules of the 3-carbon glycerate-3-phosphate (GP). ATP and reduced NADP from light dependent reaction are used to reduce activated glycerate -3 -phosphate to triose phosphate (TP). NADP is reformed and goes back to light dependent reaction to be reduced again by accepting more H+ ions.
Citric acid occurs in the matrix of the inner membrane of the mitochondrial. Citric acid starts after the glycolysis cycle produces the acetyl CoA compound and passes down two of the pyruvic acid molecules into the citric acid cycle. The acetyl CoA are broken down into carbon dioxide molecules with the formation of the two carbon dioxide molecules per each acetyl CoA, one ATP molecule is also made. • What is the role of the electron transport system? Include the reactants and the products.
Next a pair of electrons are donated from NADPH reduces 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate which also loses a phosphate group, becoming G3P. The third and last phase is the Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor ( RuBP) in a complex series of reactions, the carbon skeleton of five molecules of G3P are rearranged by the last steps of the Calvin cycle into three molecules of RuBP. To accomplish this the cycle spends three more molecules of ATP. The RuBP is now prepared to receive CO2 again, and the cycle continues all over
Both ATP and NADPH are responsible for the reduction of glycerate-3-phosphate into triose phosphate, which is converted into many useful organic compounds like carbohydrates, mainly glucose. Although glucose can be used as a direct energy source by plants, it cannot be used directly by animal cells as a source of energy. Instead, cells use ATP as their immediate source of energy. The conversion
Glycolysis plus the citric acid cycle can convert the carbons of glucose to _________ , storing the energy as ATP, _____________ and ___________. * B. pyruvate, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2 2. At the end of glycolysis, each molecule of glucose has yielded 2 molecules of _______, 2 molecules of ________, and a net of 2 molecules of _________. * D. pyruvate; NADH; ATP 3. Trematol is a metabolic poison derived from the white snake root.
C6 H12 O6 = 2C3 H6 O3 + 2ATP (lactate) This is a structure of ATP ATP contains sugar which is Ribose, a base which is Adenine and three phosphate groups. Biological systems transfer the energy in glucose to ATP because unlike glucose ATP releases its energy instantly in a single reaction and also the hydrolysis of ATP releases a small amount of energy, ideal for fuelling reactions in the body. Glucose is obtained from food; we eat pasta which is a carbohydrate which is then broken down into glucose by the digestive system. The process which breaks this down is known as catabolism, this is the breakdown of food components, breaking down
What provides the electron transport chain in cellular respiration with the energy it needs to function? 15. __________________________________________ (a process) Carbon-based molecules from food and oxygen are used to make ATP 16.What are the products of glycolysis? 17. Describe fermentation.
Describe how the storage of molecules is broken down and used to produce ATP. The process of ATP formation occurs when you inhale or exhale. In this cycle beta oxidation occurs causing fatty acids to be broken down into two carbons which forms
Structure similar to substrate | Harmful noncompetitive enzyme inhibitor | C. Tie up metals | Feedback enzyme inhibition | B. Binds to allosteric site | Ribozyme | D. Catalytic RNA molecule | Question 5 Potentially, how many molecules of ATP can be generated by prokaryotes from the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O? Answers: 38 Question 6 How many molecules of ATP are spent by prokaryotes in the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid? Answers: 2 Question 7 Although the production of ATP during fermentation is limited, its advantage over respiration is that in fermentation Answers: | The final electron acceptors could be either inorganic or organic molecules | | Glucose is completely oxidized to CO2 and H2O. | | There is not need of an external molecule to serve as a final electron acceptor | | The production of FADH2 and NADH is higher than in respiration | | Glucose is oxidized to ethanol.
The last stage is denitrification where nitrates in the soil are converted into nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria that use the nitrates in the soil to carry out respiration and produce nitrogen gas. This happens in anaerobic conditions. Another ecological cycle is the carbon cycle - all organisms need carbon to make essential compounds. Plants absorb carbon in the form of CO2 during photosynthesis and this carbon becomes part of the plant biomass in their tissues. Carbon is passed onto the primary consumers when they eat the plant, secondary and tertiary consumers obtain the carbon source when they eat other consumers.