Some ideas and theories in science meet with resistance. One of the examples when an idea is meeting with the resistance is immunization. More often children immunization meets with public resistance. As the vaccination of children is parents' decision many decides not to do it. Data published by NHS show that there is high number of measles reported due to 1-16 years old children who missed the vaccinations between 1990s and 2000s.
The stranger then enters in an attempt to comfort the child then after a short while the mother would walk in and the stranger would leave inconspicuously. There results were as followed, Ainsworth found that 22% of the infants were avoidant-insecure, 66% were classed as having a secure attachment and 12% were resistant-insecure. In conclusion the study showed that there were three significant differences between infants and their form of attachment that can be placed in three categories. Also that the mother’s behavior may be significant in determining the infants attachment type as there was an association between the mother’s behavior and the child’s. Although this research has helped many psychologists (Erickson et al, Everett waters) with their experiments this one may not be very valid, because the results may not apply to infants with different cultures and beliefs, therefore we cannot generalize the results as it was only tested on middle-class US children.
In the control group only two had had such a separation. He also found several of the young thieves (32%) showed 'affectionless psychopathy' (they were not able to care about or feel affection for others). None of the control group were affectionless psychopaths. In a later paper, he reported that 60 children who had spent time apart from their mothers in a tuberculosis sanatorium before the age of 4 showed lower achievement in school. Conclusion: Affectionless
Vulnerable mothers that do not finish getting their education become discouraged and loose the motivation and drive to tackle the oncoming challenges that life brings, creating for them another barrier on the micro level; it being a financial barrier. “Poverty and economic loss diminish the capacity for supportive, consistent, and involved parenting and render parents more vulnerable to the debilitating effects of negative life events” (Vonnie C. McLoyd, 1990 p.311). Not being financially stable brings on a lot of stress that impacts the relationship between the mother and child. Education has a large impact on a person’s life and it can change it for the better.
Therefore, the conclusions of their study was that most infants are similar to the USA, where secure attachment was the most common type. Evaluate (AO2) The strange situation is not a good tool for measuring attachment types outside of the USA because there are differences in child rearing practises access countries shown by Grossman and Grossman (1991) where they found that more German infants were classified as insecure avoidant rather than secure, this was because in Germany, children are taught to be independent from an early age. Furthermore, the strange situation is unethical as infants are not protected from harm, especially with insecure resistant infants who are rarely separated from their mother. This is supported my Takahashi (1990) where most infants were found to be insecure residents as the moths are reluctant to leave their children, so much so that these infants had to be removed from the study as they were becoming so distressed. Therefore, the strange situation is not a suitable way to measure differences in attachment types because of these different in child rearing practises, resulting in low ecological validity as children are not usually placed in a strange room to be distressed in real life, so they may present behaviours of an attachment type that they are
The problem with Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s study is that it was from a western perspective, so whats considered normal to a western culture isn’t the same as what an eastern culture would see as normal. Also the meta-analysis that they covered had twenty seven studies were carried out in individualist cultures and only five in collectivist ones, so their data should not be representative of all cultures because it would be generalized. Mary Ainsworth’s strange situation experiment was to see how infants (9-18 months old) reacted under situations of mild stress involving their main care-giver. The study consisted of: * A parent and child playing together in a room. * Mother leaves the room and reappears after a short absence.
There are four (4) different methods for choosing a "calendar year", some of which are very difficult to track manually. 5. Many companies require a 30-day notice before the leave can be used. 6. Due to many employees using the system incorrectly employers are very nervous, and can get cynics about other employees excused for using FMLA.
Studies show that, low income home energy assistance program benefits seem to reach families at the highest social and medical risk with more food insecurities have higher rates of low birth weight children (Frank, 2006). The reason behind this is that the money for food is spent on the electric bill when no assistance is provided. In result many children are born with a low birth weight and some even experience a life line of hospital visits. Some children even have a hard time focusing in school because of the lack of energy. Children are blocked from living a somewhat normal life all because the household could not get the financial assistance needed in order to help with their electricity
Yet children in Japan also show a high percentage of secure attachments this is due to the mothers rarely leaving their children in the care of another person and the fact that an infant’s clinginess and attention seeking behavior is seen as an indication of closeness and dependency. The Tokyo study in 1984 suggests that mothers of securely attached infants reported greater spousal support than mothers of insecurely (avoidant) attached infants (Berk, 2009). However on the other hand in Romanian Orphanages most of the children display insecure or ambivalent attachment styles due to spending their first 6 to 8 months without a primary caregiver, not creating that attachment bond and not receiving that intimate care. This then leads to problems in later childhood i.e. creating new attachment bonds, interacting with children, mental health problems and disruptive behavior.
In many divorce cases children are involved. Almost all divorcing parents try to keep the children out of it, but it is nearly impossible to avoid involving the children. Divorce greatly increases many types of bad effects on the children involved in the divorce, including psychological problems, juvenile delinquency, suicide, undereducation, and teenage pregnancies. Problems arise from conflict during and after divorce more than from conflict during the marriage. There is an increased incidence of emotional and physical damage even if the divorce is low-conflict.