Q.4b) Describe and evaluate the success of methods that might be employed to protect coastline.  Answers: There are two types of methods that are commonly used to protect the coastline. They are: 1) Hard engineering 2) Soft engineering Hard engineering Uses structure which aims to resist the energy of waves and tides. Examples of hard engineering: 1) Sea walls 2) Wooden groynes 3) Gabion groynes 4) Rock Armour/Rip Rap Soft engineering Solutions work with natural processes and provide more environmentally approach to the management of coastal erosion and flooding. (Does not aim to stop the coastal erosion completely) Examples of soft engineering: 1) Beach replenishment 2) Beach drainage HARD ENGINEERING Sea walls A seawall is a form of coastal defence constructed where the sea, and associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast.
The Program states that this style is an “ongoing, science-based process through which the Chesapeake Bay Program plans, implements, and evaluates its restoration efforts” (Chesapeake Bay Program). The process of the Bay Program’s adaptive management begins with the individual goal teams. The goal teams develop an adaptive management plan, then the plan moves up through the Program’s organizational structure, where the plan can be integrated and coordinated throughout the partnership (Chesapeake Bay Program). This can be seen as a form of strategic management, where “ the overall strategy chosen is in essence the package of actions selected after analyzing alternatives, assessing the outside environment, and determining the internal capabilities of an organization to achieve specific future objectives through the integrations of organizational effort” (Shafritz, 2011). Because the Chesapeake Bay Program works with a body of water and an environment that is always changing, their action efforts need to adapt to its overall goal, which is why they have implemented this adaptive management style.
What are the Main Environmental issues of Sydney Harbor? Of the threats facing Sydney Harbor none is worse than pollution. Sydney's waterways faced decades of dumped toxic waste before regulations in the 1970s banned the practice. More issues concerning the Sydney Harbor are deforestation and traffic of vehicles. Also storm water management needs to be improved.
The salinity and temperature of the water influence its density, and the differences in density are the major factor in understanding the formation of currents and the positions of water masses in the sea. In addition, temperature and salinity play major roles in influencing the distribution of plants and animals. The sediments of the sea floor may be divided into lithogenous, hydrogenous, biogenous, and cosmogenous sediments. Lithogenous sediments are the major sediments on the ocean floor. They are derived from the chemical and mechanical weathering of rocks.
When the pieces of lava collect on a steep slope, then the side of the delta crumbles often and creates a bunch of submarine landslides. Collapses like this can catch unsuspecting people and push them into the ocean and sometimes also cause big explosions. Lava deltas get wider to the sides as well as longer out into the water until a landslide happens or until the lava flow to the water is stopped. First, the pahoehoe lava is thick and slowly moves across the beach or drops over a small cliff. Waves from the ocean slosh onto the lava, causing the lava to cool at a rapid pace and break into tiny glass pieces.
Beaches are the result of wave action by which waves or currents move sand or other loose sediments of which the beach is made as these particles are held in suspension. Alternatively, sand may be moved by saltation (a bouncing movement of large particles). Beach materials come from erosion of rocks offshore, as well as from headland erosion and slumping producing deposits of scree. Some of the whitest sand in the world, along Florida's Emerald Coast, comes from the erosion of quartz in the Appalachian Mountains. A coral reef offshore is a significant source of sand particles.
Erosion is powerful among desert and glacial areas. Erosion is powerful because of high winds and the way rocks along with sand dunes in the desert are formed. Water erosion also plays a huge part in redeveloping the landscape of deserts by transferring sand from one region to another. Glaciers are created by the thickening of ice and snow. As a result of glaciers tends to float toward the outside using the pressure of its own weight.
This is where the first volleyball courts are put up on the beaches. Families play 6 vs 6. Starting the in the 1930’s the first two- man beach volleyball game is played in Santa Monica, California. Also in the 1930’s people escaped the Great Depression by going out to play beach volleyball. It didn’t cost anything and some physical activity with good weather could turn anyone’s mood better.
Bao To Assignment 4 Week 9 An ecosystem is comprised of living organisms together with their surrounding environment. It consists of both the biotic and biotic constituents. The interrelation between living organisms and their environment forms an ecosystem. The biotic constituents found in the local ecosystem include; water, minerals, soil and other nonliving constituents such as sunlight and climate. The living part of the ecosystem is referred to as biotic.