An example of replication is law enforcement replicating a crime to see how the crime was committed. Verification is confirming or validating something. A lie detector test verifies whether someone is telling the truth or not. Theory is in criminal justice represents an attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality, which in this case are crime and the criminal justice system. In addition to one of the most intriguing aspects is the Hypothesis of the Criminal Justice system when referring to a crime being committed.
Along with a brief description of the criminological theories, an attempt to show how they differ from one another and discussion of one strength and one weakness unique to each theory will be made. Finally, I will provide my opinion as to which of the two philosophies (classical or positivist) explains criminal behavior in a much more complete manner and why. The first of the criminological theories is called Social Control Theory. What makes a person not a criminal? This is the main question asked in control theories.
Running Head: UNDERSTAND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Criminologist Attempt to Understand Criminal Behavior by Constructing Theories of Crime In an attempt to curve crime rates and to fully understand the criminal mind; criminologist must construct theories that will enable us to implement effective policies to negate criminal behavior. I. Introduction A. Definition of Criminology B. Deviance vs. Crime C. Purpose of Theories II. Social Process Theories A.
Criminal justice as rational is a perspective of the criminal justice system that adopts the utilitarian belief that human beings are reasonable and rational creatures. A utilitarian study means that everything is valuable; it has a utility or useful purpose, (Gorkoff, Personal Communication October 2012.) Jeremy Bentham focuses on the principles of utility. In his writing, ‘An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation,’ he shows that people have two measures of action; ones that determine pain and those that bring pleasure, both governments and individuals consider these actions when creating, maintaining, enforcing and following laws, (Gorkoff, Personal Communication October 2012.) Bentham states that; “pleasures then, and the avoidance of pains, are the ends which the legislator has in view,” (Bentham, pg 106), meaning that crime and action are determined by the end goal of whether it brings pleasure or pain to the individual.
1. The role of criminological research in theory building is that the construction of theories allows for a better understanding of criminal behavior and helps develop strategies to address the problem of crime. 2. Theories can help us understand criminal behavior or design strategies because theories help us to understand patters and predict or understand a person’s behavior. 3.
Abstract This paper will explore and discuss the difference in opinion regarding crime and who should be held accountable for criminal activity. The views of social responsibility and social problems will be examined, along with the perspectives that each holds to justify their belief. Theories such as Determinate Sentencing that holds the value of social responsibility in response to crime, and also the Constructionist theory that places that blame on society as to why a person commits a crime. In the end I believe that Social/Individual responsibility is the most appropriate way to approach crime. Perspectives of Social Problems and Social Responsibility Within criminology there has been multiple theories suggested to explain the numerous motives behind why crime exists in our world.
RUNNING HEAD: Relevant, Reliable, and Competent Evidence Relevant, Reliable, and Competent Evidence Week 2 Jamie Louis Professor Karen Clark Criminal Evidence -14 April 30, 2011 ABSTRACT I am going to discuss the importance of evidence in any trial. There are two types of evidence, indirect and direct. There are three qualities of evidence, relevant, reliable and competent. I am going to talk about each one and give brief descriptions of each to help better understand the differences. Relevant, Reliable, and Competent Evidence Evidence is the backbone to any civil or criminal case; it proves innocence or guilt of the accused.
Explain the difference between direct intent, oblique intent and subjective recklessness in English Criminal Law. Illustrate your explanation with cases. “Throughout the web of the English criminal law one golden thread is always to be seen-that it is the duty of the prosecution to prove a prisoner’s guilt” (Lord Sankey LC, in Woolmington v DPP).To establish guilt, the two elements of every crime is considered. The conduct or act element (actus reus) and the mental element or state of mind (mens rea). For successful conviction by prosecution, it is not sufficient to be found guilty for an act alone.
For something to be valid it has to assess what it is supposed to assess (Psychology for the VCE student, 2005), therefore personality profiling when in correlation with criminal profiling is a valid tool. When something is reliable it means that it has an ability to assess what it is supposed to be assessing affectively and consistently (Psychology for the VCE student, 2005). Criminal profiling can never be one hundred percent reliable because it is only a profile that the police can use to narrow their search. There are many criminal profiling theories that can be related to personality theories. Organized/Disorganized dichotomy developed by John Douglas and Robert Ressler can be linked to Eysenck’s personality theory.
Two Models of the Criminal Process The two models of the criminal process; due process and crime control serve as the foundation of order and liberty as it relates to the practice of criminal justice and criminal law. These models struggle against each other to represent their own value system as it applies to ideologies in criminal justice procedures. Although there seems to be a difference between these two principles of criminal law, each one has positive qualities. The due process and crime control models contain prepared subject matter of values primary to the constitutional order of how criminal law is practiced (Packer, 1968). “The machinery of criminal justice—police, prosecution, courts, and corrections—is the formal means by which order is maintained in our society” (Zalman, 2008, p. 4).