This supports Bowlby's theory of sensitive period. There was another study conducted by Stout, Stout conducted a study of Romanian orphans who had experienced severe conditions and found that they later suffered permanent psychological damage, including no ability to interact with people and increased aggression. Psychologists successfully showed the impacts of institutionalisation; a strength of Hodges and Tizards study was that it was longitudinal so the researchers were able to see how the institution affected the children over many years. However a weakness of this longitudinal method involves attrition, where many of the children may have left the study because they were well adjusted, therefore resulting in a biased remaining sample - children with pleasant behaviour are more likely to be adopted. Some research suggests that individuals who do not form a primary attachment within the early sensitive period are unable to recover, however, in the study of romanian orphans, one third recovered well therefore privation alone cannot explain negative outcomes.
To what extent do the ‘grand theories’ discussed in Book 1, Chapter 2 take account of the role of social experiences in child development? Throughout much of history children were often viewed as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to their cognitive, emotional, physical, social and educational growth. Today, recognising such things is essential because they can have either a positive or negative impact on a child’s development. There are four ‘grand theories’ in child development: Behaviourism, Social Learning Theory, Constructivism and Social Constructivism. They are referred to as Grand Theories because they offer explanations of child development as a whole, rather than in specific areas.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Familyconnect tool. After reading this article, one may question the social worker’s ability to effectively prepare families for visitation. One may also question the accuracy of this study, being that some participants did not meet the criteria, although they had formerly had some type of involvement in visitations through foster care. 3. Who or what was studied? This study evaluates the visiting tool, Familyconnect.
Since the conditioned fear lasted after 31 days they claimed it might last for Albert’s whole life. B) From the information gathered about this experiment, it is clearly unethical. Firstly, in the psychological code of ethics it is stated that participants must voluntarily agree to be in the study without being persuaded. This was already an issue as the participant was an infant who obviously couldn’t have an opinion or give consent. A study is also considered unethical if it causes any mental or physical harm to the participants.
Bowlby’s theory of attachment is still relevant in understanding child care issues, but in a world dominated by parental issues psychological intervention may become a way of life. “Privation, when there is failure for a person to form an attachment to any individual- through a series of early different carers or family discord, Distortion occurs through lack of stimulation and affection” ( Woods, 2006, pg 139 ). Attachment issues may continue on in later life, a person could have trouble forming relationships. A person may feel the need to seek help with these issues and a good medium for help would be short term Psychodynamic
However it seems educators would rather play it “safe” avoiding adult themes in school-assigned literature and sticking to what they have deemed as age-appropriate for students. The term “age-appropriate” has been widely used as a proxy for beliefs & values conveyed on children & how much control they have over them. If you take a look on what was considered age-appropriate even 50 years ago and fast forward to our present day society it clear that we are not living in the same world. What was once the traditional family structure; two parents, one that often stayed home to care for their children has deteriorated and children are receiving less and less time supervised by an adult at home making a child’s time is school even more
Loftus reveals several examples where people have been through incidents where their memory has failed to tell the truth. The experiment show how awful the results can be if the individual exposes inaccurate information. Loftus also demonstrates how memory is prone to error and that individuals can occasionally make errors in what they remember. One reason error occurs is that individual are having problems retrieving and storing information correctly. This mainly occurs because people do not pay close enough attention to the details around them.
The parents need to realize that a disability is not a death sentence. As stated above, many times a disabled child has just as much an impact on a family as child prodigy and a family may also come to love this child as deeply as they would if they were a “normal” child. Genetic counselors should only be held legally responsible for a regretted decision if the parents felt like they were being persuaded into that decision. Genetic counselors should only give the parents information, both negative and positive, about the disability and nothing more. The counselors should not refer the couple to a hospital that could possibly terminate the fetus nor should they refer them to a facility that will care for the disabled fetus when he/she is born.