While there are some conflict within the liberal tradition, ie., a conflict between liberal imperialism and liberal pacifism, Doyle believes that there is a recurrent theme that can be found within liberal states. “Liberal states are different. They are indeed peaceful. T hey are also prone to make war. Liberal states have created a separate peace…and have also discovered liberal reasons for aggression…” (1151).
The first main difference between the Liberals and the Conservatives in the mid-1860s is their beliefs. The Liberals led by William Gladstone, were general believers of Gladstonian Liberalism. This was essentially “peace reform and retrenchment”. Gladstone’s own financial policies that were based on balanced budgets, low taxes, and laissez-faire (self-help) were better suited to the developing capitalist society of Britain in the mid-1860s. The Liberals were not very big supporters of the Monarch and wanted the Monarchy out of the political area and it just to be solely the government.
'The separation of powers in a presidential democracy ensures better government than parliamentary democracies' fusion of power.' Discuss. Presidential democracies possess a separation of powers in that the executive and the legislature exist independently and hence 'the government does not depend on a legislative majority to exist' (Clark, Golder and Golder, 2009). This is in contrast to the fusion of powers in parliamentary democracies, which is a government 'directly controlled by the legislature' (Clark et al, 2009) and hence dependent on a legislative majority in a way presidential democracies are not. The statement alludes to the 'mutual independence' and 'mutual dependence' (Stepan and Skach, 1993) that characterises presidential democracy and parliamentary democracy respectively to suggest the former creates better government.
This was relatively simple as they both shared similar aims; the Liberals, like Bismarck, had a main aim of national unity, and also shared some short term goals with him, such as centralisation of administrative power and the opposition to the Catholics and the Centre Party. This is evidence of Bismarck as a good statesman as he is able to identify the key forces within the Parliament and ally with them until the situation changes and he has to switch parties. Bismarck seemed to dictate the terms of the relationship, as he ensured that the Liberals gained no real political power. This acts as further evidence of him being a good statesman as it shows that he is able to effectively exploit a political group while ensuring that he remains firmly in control while appearing to concede to them. Bismarck himself was supportive of the view that he was a master manipulator of the political system, as he writes ‘everything depends on chance and conjecture.
Despite starting on opposite sides of the political spectrum, the proposed statement that President Herbert Hoover was a conservative and President Franklin D Roosevelt was a liberal is largely accurate; evident in their policies toward dealing with the Great Depression. Herbert Hoover won the presidential election in 1928, right before the beginning of the Great Depression. Contrary to the conservative policies Hoover enforced during his presidency; Hoover’s campaign was largely focused on his more liberal ideologies, such as avoiding a laissez faire economic system and regulating business (Doc A). Hoover’s initial liberal agenda appealed to the public and helped him win in 1928. However, when the stock market crashed in 1929, President Hoover was faced with the challenges of helping the United States recover from a severe economic depression.
Liberalism promotes equity and opportunity for the individual while fascism is all about the greater good and support of the establishment. When we look closer however, we begin to see a good many similarities. Both are reactionary ideologies, coming about as a response to some sort of perceived flaw in the current socioeconomic system. Explanation: Liberalism found its beginnings as a reactionary ideal to the feudalistic inequities of medieval Europe. During this time period, religious conformity and ascribed status dictated where and how a person was to live and what they could do with their lives.
"Anarchism is closer to liberalism than it is socialism" Discuss.  To establish whether anarchism is more similar to either liberalism or socialism we must understand the extent to which these ideologies share core beliefs and values. Anarchism has been defined by a strong belief in anti-statism, derived from a negative principle of authority, as well as a belief in both personal and economic freedom. There is undoubtedly a degree of overlap between these and core liberal and socialist beliefs. Anarchism can, therefore, be said to occupy a middle ground wherein both socialism and liberalism reach their anti-statist conclusions.
Conservatism is seen to favour pragmatism over principle through aspects of classical conservatism, one nation conservatism and Thatcherism. Pragmatism is seen as dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations. To prefer pragmatism over principle, is to prioritise practical considerations over ideological values. In the context of conservative ideology, this means to sacrifice core beliefs of individualism, authoritarianism, capitalism, and tradition and Parliamentary sovereignty, in favour of political and electoral considerations. The Conservative party has embraced many different and contrasting ideological policies, from Toryism to the New Right to Thatcherism to One Nation conservatism.
"While particular nationalisms vary, this basic nationalist conception of an ideal world order has been remarkably unchanged for well over a century." The concept of nationalism has survived setbacks since the French Revolution. One argument against the spread of nationalism is that such a phenomenon destabilizes the international political order. The harmful effects of alteration of existing borders�even peaceful alteration�would, it is contended, outweigh the benefits. "The belief of the Bush administration that the United States was a status quo power explains its efforts to keep both the Soviet empire and the Yugoslav federation intact."
Furthermore, traditional conservatives support free markets but take a pragmatic view of economic management, believing that there are sometimes where state intervention is need. Compared to the right new where they completely oppose state intervention. Also traditional conservatives supported the welfare state compared