Rigor and control of extraneous variables allow researchers to establish a cause-effect relationships testing casual relationships (Polit and Beck, 2012).Experimental designs strengths are that a researcher gains first hand knowledge based on the use of actual tests and trials. The weaknesses are that outcomes may not be the most desirable and may be cause for a major effect up to the death of a patient. There is also the subject of ethics, how much exposure to experimental research is considered enough or is justified. Nonexperimental design Arnold (1997) comes in many forms and generally refers to research that does not employ randomization and control groups (p.44) .This is a non intrusive way to research. Based on actual fact and findings one can discover the actual results needed.
In the second scenario, qualitative research is utilized. It is research that focuses on the human experience through narrative descriptions and explanations of investigated phenomena, that emphasize non-numerical data (Polit & Beck, 2010). It is associated with a naturalistic paradigm in which subjectivity, inductive processing and contextualization are applied. These methods, in addition to the pursuit of in-depth understanding, serve as strengths of a qualitative design. However, researcher bias, time-consuming data collection and small sample sizes are its weaknesses.
The experimental method is a study of cause and effect. It differs from non-experimental methods in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one variable (the independent), whilst keeping all other variables constant and specifically measuring the dependent variable. After an experiment is performed a statistical analysis of the results allows conclusion to be drawn between the relationship of the variables based on rejecting either the research hypothesis or the null hypothesis. The experimental method splits three different types, a field experiment (an experiment conducted in the natural environment), a natural or quasi experiment (when the independednt variable is natrurally occurring outside of the experiment) and finally a lab experiment. A lab experiment is different as it is in a controlled environment with control over the independent variable as well as all confounding variables, the dependent will be being measured.
• Help him or her develop skills in analysis, critical thinking, and synthesis of informational sources about criminal and social justice, and research. • Help him or her gain knowledge of ethics, morals, and values in criminal justice. The research process is an instrumental tool for comprehending the latest developments in the criminal justice system. Criminal justice is a scientific subject and those who administer, research, study, or practice
Variables within data both quantitative and qualitative must be approached from an unbiased perspective aimed at seeking relevancy to these clients. Demonstrated empirical findings, which challenge construct and methodologies, help establish validity and support towards a theoretic approach. The goal of the scholar-practitioner within this research setting is to identify and elaborate on singular methods within research findings and establish relevancy. Through the use of empirical data, relevancy towards these inquiries provides qualitative data in support or refutation of their means. It is therefore critical that the scholar-practitioner limit or reduce bias by establishing their unique intellectual traditions (Laureate, n.d.).
Qualitative researches are more for exploratory purposes, the researches allow the data to take them on different directions. Because these are more open to different interpretations, qualitative researches may lead to accusation of bias or personal subjectivity. In quantitative researches the reasoning is logistic and deductive whereas in qualitative researches the research is
Theory attempts to clarify, explain, and to predict the direction of future events. Paradigm describes a theoretical and methodical belief that permits selection, evaluation, and criticism. An example of paradigm is in a classic article entitled “Broken Window”. Methodology is the collection of facts and data of crime and criminal justice policy. To understand better theory addresses the issue why, while methodology addresses the issue of what is.
Qualitative and Quantitative research methods are used to create research reports. They are two different ways of collecting data, so the reports can be prepared efficiently and effectively. They both have their own ways of collecting data and information, and they both have advantages and disadvantages Many people are not aware of the two types of research, Qualitative and Quantitative; they are both very important if you want to write a proper report. The purpose of this report is to compare the two methods of research. The report will discuss the differences between the two types of research and also the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Even though action research is gaining popularity in the research arena, it has been challenged if it is “a legitimate form of inquiry” (Stringer, 2014, p. 41). There are a variety of reasons why this is so. Cohen and Manion (1985) point out the main drawback in action research that it lack what is commonly understood to be scientific rigor, related to the validity, reliability and replicability of research. Nunan (2006) and Burns (1999) both identify that researcher faces problems when conducting action research: the teacher/researcher may find it difficult to critically reflect on their own teaching practice at the same time, and may lacks expertise in carrying out such a project. There can be also difficulties in identifying participants,
They indicate what might be needed to ensure the validity of ethical discourse, and to reduce the risks associated with conflict of interest. (Journal of Medical Ethics 1999;25:259-262) another layer of complexity. Since expert members of ethical review committees may also have vested interests in seeing ethical problems resolved in particular ways, further possible conflicts of interest may be created. A theory of research and ethical review McNeill has evolved a theory of committee representation which might deal with conflicts of interest on ethical review committees.' He concludes that the stakeholders in research must be correctly represented.