Criminology Essay

1104 Words5 Pages
Introduction Criminal behaviour is an act which breaks a formal law for example such as murder, whereas deviant behaviour is that which breaks a norm. Definitions of crime and deviance are socially constructed their definitions are culturally determined. Many sociologists and theorists give explanation what exactly crime is and what punishments for the crime should be given. One major theoretical explanation of crime and punishment is done by Cesare Beccaria. In 1763 Beccaria was assigned to prepare a report on the prison system. He published a paper called “On Crimes and Punishment” in 1764. Beccaria became known as ‘the father of modern criminology’. He stated that the crime problem could not be traced to bad people but to bad laws. All people should be treated as equal before the law. Beccaria’s Principles are: Laws should be used to maintain the social contract, only legislators should create laws, Judges should impose punishment only in accordance with the law, Judges should not interpret the laws and Punishment should be based on the pleasure/pain principle. Punishment should be based on the act, not the actor. The punishment should be determined by the crime. Punishment should be prompt and effective, All people should be treated equally, Capital punishment should be abolished, The use of torture to gain confessions should be abolished, It is better to prevent crimes than to punish for them. These principles served as a guide to drafting the French penal code in 1791. Austria-Hungry in 1787 were the first Code to abolish capital punishment and influenced the United States Bill of Rights. Jeremy Bentham portrays one major theoretical explanation of inspection and surveillance. Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarianism who devoted his life to developing a scientific approach to the making and breaking of laws. Utilitarianism assumes that all human actions are
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