Running Head: UNDERSTAND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Criminologist Attempt to Understand Criminal Behavior by Constructing Theories of Crime In an attempt to curve crime rates and to fully understand the criminal mind; criminologist must construct theories that will enable us to implement effective policies to negate criminal behavior. I. Introduction A. Definition of Criminology B. Deviance vs. Crime C. Purpose of Theories II. Social Process Theories A.
pictures, autopsy, witness reports etc. crime scene classification is the second stage and is where evidence is used to put the crime into a typology. There are two types of murders; organised and disorganised and four types of rape which are power-reassurance, power-assertive, anger-retaliatory and anger-excitement. Crime reconstruction is where hypotheses are developed about what the offender and victim did and the sequence of events based on the reconstruction. Profile generation is the final stage and is where the offenders profile is developed, usually including an age range, ethnicity and social class, type of work, habits and personality.
Forensic science is science used for the purpose of the law, and thus any branch of science used in the resolution of legal disputes falls under the mantle of forensic science (Genge, 2003). This broad definition covers criminal prosecutions in the widest sense, including consumer and environmental protection and health and safety at work, as well as civil proceedings such as breach of contract and negligence. A police officer investigating an incident will seek clarification of three issues: whether a crime has been committed; who the responsible parties are; and whether there is enough evidence to charge the responsible person and proceed to a successful prosecution (Fisher, 1992; Osterburg and Ward, 2000). This clarification is seldom the isolated responsibility of one officer, and any consequential trial will require the involvement of the specialist police officers and civilian staff. Forensic science, and the evidence it can interpret, can be expected to make a contribution to the clarification of all three issues.
A Crown Court also divides the offenses it deals with in three types. Class 1 offenses are the most serious offenses, such as murder, manslaughter and treason, class 2 are offenses, like rape, and class 3 are offenses, such as kidnapping, burglary, robbery and grievous bodily harm. Moreover, it must be noted that there are either-way offenses, which are dealt with as the name suggests, in other words either in a Magistrates Court, or a Crown Court, such as handling stolen goods and theft. In this case, the defendant can
Substantive criminal law is composed of the following elements: the definitions of the types of offenses that are held to be punishable; the classification of crimes (for example, felonies and misdemeanors in the United States, or crime, and contravention in continental law). “The principles and doctrines applied to the judgment of crime that qualify the provisions of criminal legislation are; self-defense, necessity, insanity and so forth; and
Explain how honesty and dishonesty impact self-report studies. Being completely honest in these self-reports may help different groups of people understand criminal behaviors and crimes. These reports are gathered information that is put into data. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is an incident-based reporting system for crimes known to the police. For each crime incident coming to the attention of law enforcement, a variety of data are collected about the incident.
Pioneered by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, the developmental theory of crime, integrates sociological, psychological, and economic elements into more multifarious developmental views of crime causality. In an effort to produce a more holistic view of a criminal career, which incorporates its inception, prolongation, and dissolution, social scientist have established developmental theories. When applied specifically to intimate partner violence these theories can provide insight into the behavioral patterns of abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV), according to the CDC, is “a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner.” This abuse can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats that influence the behavior of another person. Intimate partner violence is a serious problem particularly in the United States because on average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States, which sums up to more than 12 million women and men over the course of a year.
Disc7 Accounting Black Hat or White Hat Student Name: Institution Name: Abstract A criminal investigation involves seeking, collecting, and gathering evidence for a criminal case. Depending on the depth of the crime committed, it is sometimes necessary to use people convicted of crimes to help convict other people doing similar crimes. The Enron case is one such example of a major accounting fraud which involved using convicts in investigations. Keywords: Accounting fraud, convict A criminal investigation involves seeking, collecting, and gathering evidence for a criminal case. A criminal investigator is the one who looks for evidence to establish whether a crime has taken place (Bratton, William, 2002, p. 24).
The lines of evidence relating to the psychology of criminal behaviors research correspond closely to the paternal and family risk factors that a criminal has experienced during their development stages in life from childhood to adulthood. The most supporting evidence of the risk factors could be found in single parent household, parental styles, parental monitoring, and the influence of the siblings. There are many other reasons as to why a person becomes a criminal, however is hard to determine the real reason that sparingly transpire and individual to commit crimes. There are more studies needed to be conducted to determine the mental status of a criminal. Is rationale to assume that parental and family risk factors played a vital part in the life of a criminal, because they are a product of their surroundings.
There are three goals of forensic victimology. It involves outlining the victims lifestyles and circumstance, the events leading up to the crime, and the nature of crime (Turvey, 2012, p. 125). By first identifying the victims lifestyle, “a baseline to compare” (Turvey, 2012, p. 165) which factors of the victims history or lifestyle are relevant to the crime. This can include “recent consensual sex- as well as past STD’s, actions taken by the victim after the crime, history of drug abuse, and a history of mental or behavioral problems (Turvey, 2012, p. 166). All details are documented, and “intended to guide the exam, evidence collection, and crime lab analysis of findings (Turvey, 2012, p. 167).