First I would like to start by giving a brief definition of what or better said – how, criminology differs from victimology. Criminology is more concerned with the origin of crime along the extent and nature of crime. Criminology places an emphasis on studying the offender, the crimes, and the motives behind the crime. It is also the study of how the public and criminal justice system responds to the offender. Victimology plays a very important role in criminology and is used to determine what the victim’s behavior has to do with their risk of being victimized.
In this essay we will assess the usefulness of these functionalist theories, and look at how it helps us explain crime. One functionalist who tried to explain crime is Merton and his strain theory, the strain theory argues that people engage in the deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. Merton explanation combines 2 elements; structural factors- society’s unequal opportunity structure, cultural factors- strong emphasis to achieve goals and weak emphasis on using legit means. Merton uses the strain theory to explain some patterns of crime in society, he argues a person’s positioning in society affects the way they adapt or respond to the strain to anomie. Merton gives 5 different types of adaption; Conformity- the individual accepts socially acceptable goal and achieves it through legitimate means, Innovation- Individual accepts the role of success and wealth but uses illegitimate means to achieve them, Ritualism- Individual give up on legitimate goals but still follow strictly to the rules, Retreatism- Individuals reject legitimate goals and means of achieving them e.g drug addicts, the final type is Rebellion- Individuals reject existing goals and means but replace them with new one in desire to bring about revolutionary change.
• Quantitative evidence – recorded crime levels over time • Qualitative evidence – Interviews, observations & surveys • Increased reporting of crime (Maguire 1997) • Offenders as % population by gender & age • Area where we live – (Social Trends, 2002, pp.154-5). • Crime by ethnicity • British Crime Survey 1982 – Men/Women/age groups Conclusion: • Key point summary • Perception of crime and actual likelihood R6113606 What forms of evidence have been used by social scientists in studies of crime? Crime is interpreted in many different ways, it is therefore important to establish what the term ‘Crime’ actually means. Crime is an act that may be punishable by law, is injurious to the public and or evil. There appears to be a difference between how social scientists would look at crime and how the general public would look at crime.
Accuracy in eyewitness testimony The accuracy of eyewitness (EW) testimony can be affected by many psychological factors. The purpose of this essay is to outline and evaluate these different factors. Eyewitnesses usually experience anxiety during a crime, as they are exposed to potential danger. Two important things must be considered about anxiety in eyewitnesses. First of all, the level of anxiety is determinate by the threat of danger.
The Goals of Criminal Sentencing By Tyler Dunivan-Scott Since the beginning of time, there has been crime and with crime came the need to punish criminals. Crimes and their respective punishments have changed throughout the times. In earlier times, standards of punishment included torture, banishment, branding, and whipping. It was thought that the stronger the punishment was, the less likely the person would be to repeat the offense. There are five objectives that are widely accepted for enforcement of the criminal law by punishments: deterrence, retribution, incapacitation, rehabilitation and restitution.
Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation The criminal justice system is persistently regulating methods to safeguard and help a shifting civilization. This article assesses, recognizes and measures current upcoming and up-to-date trends upsetting the criminal justice system. Last but not least, it explains the standards of the coordination within a shifting civilization. A current trend that distresses the United States criminal justice system stands to be technology; this contributes to shorten periods of investigations and makes the examination of corruption harder, predominantly high technology delinquency including the knowledge of computers and infrastructures expertise can be a trend to slow the investigations. Simply one of
Personal Criminological Theory Taniqua S. Shepperson AJS542 Criminological Theory March 31, 2013 Angela Dudley Personal Criminological Theory Introduction Understanding the reasoning’s behind why a person commits a crime, violent or simple, requires an in-depth understanding of both the criminal justice system and theories associated with crime. The criminological theory offers many reasons for criminal behavior. These reasons vary from society to mental issues. These reasons, or theories, offer researched data that assists law makers in defining how crimes are punished and prevented. Some of those theories include: Social learning, rational choice, and labeling theory.
Conclusion Prosecutors, defense attorneys, criminals, and victims are placed together to deal with a given crime. Victimization concerns each position in different ways and must be individually considered. The goals of sentencing differ somewhat between each position. Alternative sanctions are often recognized when a criminal offender is sentenced. Ongoing assessments of victims' rights and the continousl improvement of such are imperative.
Planning and Threat Assessment Kristie Hamner CJA/585 November 28, 2011 Mr. Breckinridge Planning and Threat Assessment Planning and threat assessment involving violent criminal behavior of threatening attacks on public figures has been increasing over the past years. Law enforcement and security officers are aiming for prevention as an important element of control strategies. The issue in this analysis is planning and threat assessment on a hypothetical person who seeks persona notoriety and his behavior renders him controversial and vulnerable to threats. This planning and threat assessment describes the challenges in a hypothetical scenario (Holden, 1995). First, identifying main individuals in a security plan as follows, for instance vehicles will have armor, but will include medical care, water, and fire extinguishers.
In case of a murder crime, the criminal will be given the capital punishments as according to its defined term. The research studies have also found that in most justice systems, the criminals from minority backgrounds are given the punishments first whereas the criminals that belong to the majority ethnic groups are kept behind so as to aspect the changes in the decisions of the judiciaries (Lawrence W. S., 2001). The enhanced and effective criminal justice administration system will