An example of replication is law enforcement replicating a crime to see how the crime was committed. Verification is confirming or validating something. A lie detector test verifies whether someone is telling the truth or not. Theory is in criminal justice represents an attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality, which in this case are crime and the criminal justice system. In addition to one of the most intriguing aspects is the Hypothesis of the Criminal Justice system when referring to a crime being committed.
Describe and Discuss Offender Profiling Douglas and Burgess (1986) define offender profiling as ‘an investigation technique by which to identify the major personality and behavioural characteristic of the offender based upon an analysis of the crime(s) he or she has committed’. Profiling began in the USA in the 1960s/1970s, when the FBI specialists were trained to infer personality and behavioural traits of an offender by detailed analysis of the way he or she committed the crime. The technique was initially devised to help narrow down the search for serial offenders in apparently motiveless cases of murder and rape. Offender profiling is also known as crime scene analysis, or criminal investigate analysis, as it involves forming hypotheses about an offender based on analysis of the crime scene, victim and existing knowledge about offender behaviour. Early work on offender profiling by the FBI indicated a broad distinction between organised offenders and disorganised offenders.
Controlling Organized Crime Sean Johnson CJA/384 June 18, 2012 Jason Mann Introduction In this paper the writer will use definitions, principles, and theories from previous assignments, in which she establishes a thesis regarding the control of organized crime. Identify the problems presented and the various relationships established by organized crime. Describe the legal limitations associated with combating organized crime, including a critique of major federal laws and strategies that support this effort. The writer will conclude with a realistic solution to control organized crime by discussing and evaluating the effectiveness of organized crime prosecutions. Organized Crime Prevention and Control As one author put it, “organized crime has been defined in the relative absence of Knowledge” about its true dimensions (Castle, 2008, p. 139).
The victim may lie in order to try and gain sympathy or favor. I believe the best method of collecting crime data is to ask the victim what happened at different times, being asked by different people. The Uniform Crime Report (or also known as UCR) is used for measuring official crime data the UCR began in 1929. The Uniform Crime Report (or also known as UCR) Began by Federal Bureau of Investigation (or also known as “The FBI”) but Information is based on arrests made. These reports include Part I offenses: violent and property crimes.
Risk assessment is used to predict future crimes and criminal behaviors; it also analyzes the likelihood of an offender committing an offense. The purpose of this paper is to identify two standardized assessment that can predict criminal behaviors and differentiate between each assessment. The two assessments that I chose are actuarial and clinical assessment. Risk assessment, focuses on the structural method used in the actuarial data and structured test and rating instrument. Actuarial assessment is the data collected, in the used to gathered and entered into the pre-existing equation (Otto, 2000).
Offender profiling is the collection of empirical data in order to compile a picture of the characteristics of those involved (Howitt 2002). Offender profiles aim to narrow down the range of possible suspects rather than solve the actual crime (Dwyer 2001). Holmes suggests that profiling is most useful when the crime scene reflects psychopathology e.g. sadistic assaults, and 90% of profiling attempts involve murder or rape. Holmes and Holmes 1996 suggested that there are three goals to offender profiling; social and psychological assessments of the offender, psychological evaluation of their belongings, and interviewing suggestions and strategies.
Fitzgerald, L.F., Gelfand, M.J. and Drasgor, F. (1995), Measuring sexual harassment: theoretical and psychometric advances, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 17, pp. 425-445. Grainger, H. and Fitzner, G. (2006), Department of Trade and Industry 14 Fair Treatment at Work Survey, DTI. Hunt, C. M., Davidson, M. J., Fielden, S. L., & Hoel, H. (2010).
An explanation of how the video represents the element of criminal behavior which is learned through societal interaction is to follow. People often wonder as to the reasons and motives for why criminals commit crimes. The social process theory provides an explanation for certain behaviors based upon environmental influences. The “Tent City, Arizona” video points to certain criminal behaviors being learned through social interaction. “Tent City, Arizona” was opened 1993 by Sheriff Joe Arpaio was able to get several military tents.
Offender profiling is the establishing of a hypothesis to identify a criminal via examining the evidence accumulated from a crime scene, this helps authorities narrow down searches for individuals with traits that correlate with signatures of the crime, one such noted profiler was Robert Ressler. In discussing the FBI approach to offender profiling, it is essential to draw focus on the methodology developed by Ressler and how it is utilised by authorities in addition to its strengths and limitations. In this context offender profiling is used when examining crimes involving serial murders of a sexual nature. The FBI profile emerges from stages, the process begins with what is termed the Assimilation Stage. Evidence of the crime scene is obtained, this would include photographs or an in person examining of the scene, a profile of the victim (including their pathology reports), witness statements and DNA analyses of the victim and the offender.
Measuring Crime Jeremy Johnston Introduction to Criminal Justice 31 August 2015 Reginald Anthony How are crimes measured? Well according to the learning module in chapter two, crime is measured with statistics. Those statistics are used to determine effectiveness of new laws and programs, and procedural changes. The Department of Justice uses two statistical programs to measure the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the Nation. The two programs the Department of Justice use are the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).