These statistics reflect the “tough on crime” policy being imposed in the United States. The lawmakers who enacted laws designed to make it easier for juveniles to be tried and punished as adults see that the only solution to juvenile crime is to detain more children to make the society safer. It
Because the overall objective of Restorative justice is to involve all stakeholders, it requires the assumption that crimes or violations are committed against real individuals, rather than against the state. It serves as an advocate’s restitution to the victim by the offender rather than retribution by the state against the offender. Instead of continuing and escalating the cycle of violence, it tries to restore relationships and stop the violence. Victims’ respond to this as a need because it helps them feel what they want to feel most and that’s safe. Some of the most important components a victim needs and desires are to feel safe, to have support and most importantly to have a voice.
Juvenile justice can be defined as the sector of the law applicable to persons not of legal age. Complying with the United Nations Conventions of the Rights of the Child, the juvenile justice system aims to combine the welfare and justice approaches to youth crime, in order to keep the best interests of the child as the most prominent of priorities. However, there remains a considerable list of aims to be addressed when the issue of responding to juvenile justice arises. These include decreasing rates of recidivism, providing rehabilitation into society, and ultimately recognizing that due to mental immaturity and lack of legal knowledge, young offenders require a degree of protection. The extent to which our legal system is able to adequately provide this is at times, questionable.
THE IMPACT OF THE BROKEN WINDOW THEORY BY JAMES Q. WILSON AND GEORGE L. KELLING, 1982 THE IMPACT OF THE BROKEN WINDOW THEORY BY JAMES Q. WILSON AND GEORGE L. KELLING, 1982 Student Name Instructor Name Date Student Name Instructor Name Date Introduction: In my opinion, The Broken Windows Theory has made major impact in society today. This theory has provided important insights and innovation to the field of policing. Minor crimes have been controlled by this policing approach. There have been some controversy with this theory. When the Broken windows is correctly understood we will have better communities and a decrease in crimes.
Youth Criminal Justice Act The Leniency Argument January 2010 The Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA), introduced on April 1, 20031 for youth aged 12 – 17, is legislation designed to balance the legalistic framework of the Young Offenders Act (YOA) and the social-needs approach underlying the Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA). The Declaration of Principle, which outlines the philosophy of the YCJA, states that “the purpose of the youth criminal justice system is to prevent crime by addressing the circumstances underlying a young person’s offending behaviour, rehabilitate young persons who commit offences and reintegrate them back into society, and ensure that a young person is subject to meaningful consequences for his or her offences, in order to promote the long-term protection of the public”2. The YCJA legislation was developed as a direct response to harsh criticism of the Young Offenders Act (YOA) which it replaced. The YOA had significant issues in terms of lacking a clear and consistent youth justice philosophy, the overuse of incarceration, using the court system for minor offences, unfairness in sentencing, the ineffective reintegration of the offender into society, unfairness in transfers to adult court, no clear distinction between serious violent offences and less serious offences and no sufficient recognition to the interests of the victims.1 While some believe that the YCJA has addressed all of these issues, there are others who believe that our youth justice system has a long way to go to fully take into account the needs of both the victims and offenders. I plan to demonstrate, through this document, that the YCJA is too lenient in dealing with youth crime, particularly where it involves weapons and violence.
Do you agree that incarceration is a better method of correction than corporal punishment? Why or Why not? Answer: I agree that incarceration is a better method of correction than corporal punishment because we are giving them a chance to think about their crime and give them a certain amount of time to be a better person and have a second chance at a more meaningful life. Hurting them does something (Yes!) but it’s not the right thing to do; as an individual we have to give that person a second chance to redeem them self.
Assess the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with young offenders Judgment = mainly effective to an extent punishment can be too lenient can be shown through how safe the community is. Components: • Evaluate effectiveness of the legal system The criminal justice system deals with young offenders differently to adults offenders. Different countries apply the term ‘young offenders’ to different age groups depending on the age of criminal responsibility in that country Factors that ensure the effectiveness of the criminal justice system when dealing with young offenders Age of criminal responsibility is effective b/c children do not have the experience or metal capacity truly form the necessary Mens rea to commit a crime Given greater protection by the law at every stage of the criminal justice system b/c they are more vulnerable and have a greater chance of rehabilitating and becoming responsible citizens Children’s court proceedings are designed to protect children who are with a criminal offence, while also holding into account for any crime they have committed Court Proceedings And Operation CC is a special court established under the children’s court act 1987 (NSW) dealing with matter under 18 and dealing with care and protection of children referred to it by NSWCS (DOCS) The children’s (Criminal proceedings) Act 1987 requires the CC to show regard for the following main principles: o Children have rights equal to adults. Right to be heard and participate in proceedings that affect them o Children are responsible for their actions but require guidance and assistance o Education of the child should proceed without interruption o Where possible a child should be able to reside in their own home (Depending if parents are suitable or want them there) Given greater protection than adults when questioned or
How did the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 change the sentencing process for young people? The 1999 Criminal Evidence Act was introduced for the following reasons; to provide for the referral of offenders under 18 to youth offender panels; to make provision in connection with the giving of evidence or information for the purposes of criminal proceedings; to amend section 51 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994; to make pre-consolidation amendments relating to youth justice; and for connected purposes.’ [27th July 1999] The Act is about improving the effectiveness of the youth court and preventing offending by children and young people. This is now the principal aim of the youth justice system. Changes to the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act gave further reforms to the youth court, these changes created a new sentence of referral to a youth offender panel, known as a Referral Order. A Referral Order will be available for young people convicted for the first time and its primary aim is to prevent re-offending.
It takes the involvement of the whole community and police to come together, work together to make the community as safe as possible. There have been some positive changes in policing, and this strategy truly aids the comeback in fighting crime. During findings and evaluation for the CAPS program, there have been evidence that the program led to a significant decline in drug and gang problems and physical decay as well as increased satisfaction with the police (Skogan and Hartnett, 1997, pp. 194-197). CAPS program has been a success.
Introduction to Criminology Feb 11 Labeling perspectives * Secondary deviation is the principal focus of labeling perspectives. * Secondary deviation is a natural offshoot of primary deviation i.e. shoplifting; it brings focus to what takes place after the police is called. * Police intervention may cause the individual to be labeled as a deviant or a young offender * The individual may have to fall into the context of the label/ new status * Said to be the most applicable among young people, who may employ various types of neutralization technique or start to justify what they do. * Critics note that not every young person acts the same.