The crime of blasphemy was severe due to the amount of crime he led up to, by claiming he was Christ the judges would take this very seriously as if going against them. 3) What is the difference between ‘retribution’ and ‘deterrence’? Retribution means a punishment inflicted on someone as revenge for a wrong or criminal act whereas deterrence is the use of punishment as a threat to deter people from offending and creating crime. 4) Explain how the law in the 18th century was applied differently to different groups in society? Punishments varied according to a person’s social group.
Critically analyse Cesare Beccaria overall philosophy of crime and punishment. To say that life in most European countries was devastating prior 19th century would be gross understatement. As pointed out by Hoggard (2013), it was horrifying to live in the region because of violence, religious intolerance and injustice that characterized most societies. Maybe not the worst, but it is beyond doubt that abominable condition of criminal justice system was the major contributing factor. The criminal system was harsh and biased towards those perceived as less privileged groups in the European societies.
Crime and punishment in the Elizabethan period Many of the crimes in the Elizabethan time was not that different from what we see today, but there is no mistaken that the punishment hardly can’t be compared. One of punishments in the Elizabethan Era, was what they called the drunkard’s cloak. That was a punishment for public drunkenness, the punish was for the guilty would have to wear a barrel, that had holes for the arms and head, and was most used for public humiliation, but besides that it was of course heavy. One of the more weird crimes and cruel punishments, was when a woman who gossiped or spoke to freely. The punishment was for the woman to wear a large iron Framework, sort of a metal mask placed on the woman’s head.
Common forms of misconduct are excessive use of physical or Deadly Force, discriminatory arrest, physical or verbal harassment, and selective enforcement of the law (Saucier, 2001). Police corruption is the abuse of police authority for personal gain. Corruption may involve profit or another type of material benefit gained illegally as a consequence of the officer's authority. Typical forms of corruption include Bribery, Extortion, receiving or fencing stolen goods, and selling drugs. The term also refers to patterns of misconduct within a given police department or special unit, particularly where offenses are repeated with the acquiescence of superiors or through other ongoing failure to correct them (Saucier 2001).
The law, though, is complex and steeped in nuances that discriminate among criminal acts and criminals. Who does what to whom and why are taken into consideration when a case is tried or a punishment is given. The courts take into consideration many variables and the more variables involved, the more complex the decision making process gets. What complicate the issue are
The consequences for breaking the contract of law can result in minor to severe punishments. People define crime in many different ways because people have their own perspective of what crime is. Different countries and states have different laws and different and they each have specific consequences for committing various crimes. Severe crimes such as murder, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery most of the time require more severe punishments than crimes such as vandalism, theft, forgery, and embezzlement. Crime has also been defined as deviant behavior that goes against what is
Many of these offences would have been carried out by the lower classes in a bid to survive or to provide for their families. Hall and McLennan (1986) Another category of felony was Crimes against the Person: this covered murder and manslaughter, sexual crimes such as rape and infanticide which is now believed to have been an early form of population control practiced by the poor in overcrowded suburbs such as London which saw a huge increase in population in the eighteenth century.. The final felony was that of Riotous Assembly: this charge was very common during this period of social disruption. ‘Unlawful Assembly’ could be used against a group of two or more people who had gathered to commit an act, whether lawful in itself or not and could lead to a breach of the peace. The most serious in this sub-category was that of
Even under kind masters, slaves suffer, however, most of them try to find a relief in God. Christian theology is fundamentally incompatible with slavery, but it makes slaveholders more sensitive and provides a safe haven for slaves. In contradiction to circumstances presented above, the Legree plantation is the place, where the evil of slavery appears in its most naked and hideous form. Slaves suffer beatings, sexual abuse, and even murder in this harsh and barbaric setting. If slavery is wrong in the best of cases, in the worst of cases it is a nightmare and very inhuman.
During the Elizabethan era, treason was considered as the worst crime a person could ever commit. Consequently, it was at cases of high treason when torture was strictly and heavily employed. Other heinous crimes - including robbery, rape, and manslaughter - also warranted the use of torture. The degree of torture that was applied was in accordance with the degree of the crime. Reportedly, women suffered from torture only rarely and lords and high officials were exempted from the act.
They put restrictions on the German military, to make Germany weak and a second-rate power. Germany had huge financial losses, which brought the rise of the ultra-nationalist Nazis. They had to take acceptance of responsibility for the damage in the war even though they weren’t the only ones in the war. Germany had absolutely no say in the requirements and matters of the treaty. The Treaty of Versailles would prove to be one of the most disastrous mistakes in history.