The results, of the crime control model are wrongful convictions, being over-turned and this is a major downfall in the criminal justice system. On the other hand the due process model is more concerned with the structure and the efficiency of the law. The due process focuses on evidences and facts in a case and ensures that a person in innocent until proven guilty in the court of law. In addition the due process model goal is the prevention and the elimination of crimes within the criminal justice
The rewards can involve money or even a sense of gratification according to sociologist Jack Katz in the text book Criminal Justice in action when said “’rewards’ of crime may be sensual as well as financial. The inherent Danger, according to Katz, increases the ‘rush’ a criminal experiences on successfully committing a crime” (pg32). Not all Crimes are fun and games. They do have their costs such as probation and jail time this is because it deters the thought process in doing right from wrong. This can be found in the text Criminal Justice in Action when stated “Because crime is seen as the end result of a series of rational choices, policy makers have reasoned that severe
Crime helps economy by creating a jobs for law enforcement officers, psychiatrists, probation officers, etc. It also proofs that government does not have full control over USA citizens. By decreasing crime rates in the USA we can improve security of the country and make citizens feel safer, but on the other hand it will decrease work load of the law enforcement. When analyzing crime rates by conflict theory we can notice that conflict theorist believe that
In this essay we will assess the usefulness of these functionalist theories, and look at how it helps us explain crime. One functionalist who tried to explain crime is Merton and his strain theory, the strain theory argues that people engage in the deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. Merton explanation combines 2 elements; structural factors- society’s unequal opportunity structure, cultural factors- strong emphasis to achieve goals and weak emphasis on using legit means. Merton uses the strain theory to explain some patterns of crime in society, he argues a person’s positioning in society affects the way they adapt or respond to the strain to anomie. Merton gives 5 different types of adaption; Conformity- the individual accepts socially acceptable goal and achieves it through legitimate means, Innovation- Individual accepts the role of success and wealth but uses illegitimate means to achieve them, Ritualism- Individual give up on legitimate goals but still follow strictly to the rules, Retreatism- Individuals reject legitimate goals and means of achieving them e.g drug addicts, the final type is Rebellion- Individuals reject existing goals and means but replace them with new one in desire to bring about revolutionary change.
Marxist writers such as Chambliss suggest that the majority of the working-classes are exploited by the owners of big businesses and the government. This leads to the creation of laws that appear to benefit the working-class and benefit the ruling classes. Chambliss suggests that this conflict culture that has emerged from capitalism encourages crime. Hegdige said that Capitalist societies lead to greed within the ruling classed and the lower classes rebell against this system as they are in poverty so steal to get money. Snider argues that the effects of robberies and petty theft are much smaller than the losses created by big businesses engaging in corporate crimes.
The incarceration system in the United States has inflicted much damage on societal well-being, caused by privatization of prisons, war on drugs, and overcrowding of prison cells. The safety and well-being of society lies in the efficiency of prisons. The lack of a productive system will continue to harm the nation and further the deterioration of the lives of those affected. However, with a few reformations the problem can be solved and societal safety restored. Eradication of private prisons and promotion of drug rehab can benefit both society and the incarceration system and result in a more successful
‘ It is one thing to assert that crime can be made to serve some social end or other once it has occurred, for example to heighten solidarity by uniting against the offender. It is another step altogether to explain crime as promoted in advance by society to bring about that end’ (Downes and Rock, 2007, pg 83). There are sub
He believes the higher rates of crime in urban areas are due to a decline of family and social networks which are increasing the amount of young people that are involved in criminal. Bruce’s idea of societalisation can be applied to the causes of increased crime as the ‘death of close knit communities’ has led to more criminal activity among young people. On the other hand, Matza would argue that due to the fact we all share the same subterranean values young people cannot be the main reason for increased crime in urban areas, others just happen to use techniques of neutralisation in order to justify their
The Causes of Crime - Right realists reject the idea put forward by Marxists and others that structural or economic factors such as poverty and inequality are the cause for crime. For example, they point out that the old tend to be poor, yet they have a very low crime rate. - Right realists argue that crime is the product of three factors; individual biological differences, inadequate socialisation and the underclass, and rational choice to offend. Individual Biological Differences - James Wilson and Richard Herrnstein (1985) put forward a biosocial theory of criminal behaviour. In their view, crime is caused by a combination of biological and social factors.
From a Marxist point of view laws are made by the state, which represent the interests of the ruling class. This argument forms the basis of a theory of widespread crime and selective law enforcement. This shows that crime will occur right the way through society, however poor criminals receive harsher treatment than rich criminals. Marxists tend to emphasise white collar and corporate crime, and pay less attention to blue collar variants. They emphasise that crimes of the upper class exert a greater economic toll on society than the crimes of ordinary people.