Most babies born with Down syndrome are diagnosed after birth and will be likely to have hypotonia which is reduced muscle tone leading to floppiness, eyes that slant upwards and outwards, palmar crease which is when their palm may have only one crease across it, a below average weight and length at birth. Down syndrome is one of
Well A.D.D. stands for attention deficit disorder it is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder affecting about 3-5% of the world's population. It typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness, poor impulse control or impulsivity, and distractibility. A.D.D. is currently considered a persistent and chronic condition for which no medical cure is available, although medication and therapy can treat symptoms.
However, most first degree relatives and twins share the same or similar environments so it is difficult to separate genetic and environmental influences. Because of the difficulties of disentangling genetic and environmental influences for individuals who share genes and environment, studies of genetically related individuals who have been reared apart are used. Tienari et al conducted a longitudinal study and found that out of 164 adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, 11 (6.7%) also received a diagnosis of schizophrenia, compared to just four (2%) of the 197 control adoptees (born to non- schizophrenic mothers). This suggests that genes rather than the environment have caused the disorder in these cases. It supports the
When two carriers have a child there’s a 50% chance that the child will be a carrier, but not have the disease. There’s a 25% chance that their child will not be a carrier, and not have the disease; and there’s a 25% chance that their child will have tay-sachs. In america, about 3 to 5 babies are born with tay-sachs every year. Tay-Sachs Disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell has the cell mutation. Tay-Sachs becomes apparent in infancy.
Canavan disease is rare genetic neurological disorder characterized by the spongy degeneration of the white matter in the brain. Affected infants may appear normal at birth, but usually develop symptoms between 3-6 months of age. Symptoms may include an abnormally large head (macrocephaly), lack of head control, severely diminished muscle tone resulting in "floppiness," and delays in reaching developmental milestones such as independent sitting and walking. Most affected children develop life-threatening complications by 10 years of age. Canavan disease occurs because of mutations in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene that affects the breakdown (metabolism) of the N-acetylaspartic acid (NNA).
Researchers are consistently seeing bog-term problems in the crack-exposed children. Problems that may cause them to be labeled reaming disabled. Diagnosis for the most severely damaged children usually indicated need for special education classes. For the others, the severity and scope of their problems varied, but most all had difficulty in a traditional school setting. There was an inability to deal with many different stimuli at once.
Outline the stages of development of attachment’s in babies and behaviours what can be observed in stages. Evaluate the evidence provided by psychologists in defining the stages. The first real attachment a baby will have would be the mother as this is the first person the baby would have seen. Human babies are not mobile immediately after birth as they are helpless. They have a relatively long period of immaturity and only begin to crawl at about 8 months.
Researches say pervasive development disorders occur in about five to 15 children per 10,000 births. PDDs are most common in boys than in girls, with the exception of Rett's syndrome, which occurs almost always in girls. How are pervasive development disorders diagnosed? If a child is showing signs of having a Pervasive development disorder, the doctor will do an evaluation by doing a medical history and physical exam. There are no laboratory tests to diagnose a PDD, the doctor may use different tests such as X-rays and blood tests to determine if there is a physical disorder causing the
However, most all credible studies touching on this topic tend to coincide with these findings. It is now generally accepted among scientists that there is no relationship between MMR vaccination and autism spectrum disorder. Autism most likely develops during the embryonic stage in an infant’s development. Defects just begin to show at around one year of age, which is the same time that the MMR vaccine is administered (DeStefano & Chen Negative association between MMR and autism 1987-1988). Nevertheless, there are still studies being done to find a possible link between ASD and the MMR vaccine.
In 1959, Lejeune identified Down syndrome as being caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21, due to a failure in the cell division process. Subsequently, Down syndrome, also referred to as Trisomy 21, was recognised as a 'genetic condition', which affects both physical and intellectual development (Lorenz, 1998). In the UK, approximately 600-700 children are born with Down syndrome, the incidence rate increasing with advancing maternal age. It is estimated that there are around 30,000 people with Down syndrome living in the United Kingdom. The life expectancy of people with Down syndrome is currently between 45 and 55 years, with some people living beyond 60 and 70 years (Lorenz, 1998; Buckley, 2000, online).