The unconscious contains drives, urges, or instincts that motivate words, feelings, and actions of individuals without their full awareness. The forces of the unconscious continually strive to become conscious through the individual’s behaviors. Sigmund Freud believes that the conscious plays a minor role in the behaviors of individuals; however, Freud focuses mostly on the unconscious (Feist & Feist, 2009). Assumptions There are many assumptions that were developed by Sigmund Freud. Freud began with his beliefs in the roles of
I will also briefly look at both theories in terms of power relations and structure / agency which can have a great influence on individual difference and personality traits. . To conclude, both theories take a different ontological and methodology approach towards individuals, which means that the aims of their research and the knowledge produced by can be quite different. The trait theory it was developed by Eysenck & Rachman, their theory is based in the experimental scientific and psychometric tradition, whereby assessments were used to access personality. This theory on personality was based upon biological explanations whereby he believed that individual’s personality traits were caused by a persons biological and genetic make-up (cited in Butt, 2012).
This is the contradicting of Jung. Jung has analysis himself to experience the unconscious through his dreams and fantasia Jung believe that he was strong enough to make dangerous journey and come back to talk about it. His goal was to understand the unconscious from the purpose viewpoint of scientist. Ellis thoughts are that society is more disturbs and it more inclusive and exact “people disturb themselves by thing that have happen to them. And by the view, feelings, and actions” (p16) Horney’s (1950) also Adler writes that our Emotional reactions and lifestyle are associated with our basic beliefs and are therefore cognitively created.
Freud assumed that our behavior is caused by unconscious thoughts, our desires and impulses which is also how human behaviour is explained in the psychodynamic approach. Psychodynamic approach concentrates on many different factors that may have caused psychological distress, such as childhood experiences, our current and past relationships and exploring the things we do without even being aware of it. Another very important and powerful tool is to use this therapy to interpret the transference relationship. The psychodynamic counselling sessions are more dynamic as the therapist is trying to help the patient in fewer sessions possible comparing to psychoanalysis. This is why the counselor usually presents himself as a ‘blank screen’ and lets the client act out and projects his feelings on to the therapist.
Whereas other theorists have argued that is is the way we are brought up and influenced by our surroundings that makes an individual the way they are. Nature means the genetic and biological influences that affect our growth and development. The nature side of the debate believes that it is inherited factors which have more impact on your life and development. For example, the colour or type of your hair, your eye colour, the pigmentation of your skin, and also genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis are all the result of the genes we inherit. These biological factors are said to determine an individual’s development and characteristics .
Personality is influenced by genetic factors through temperament. For example, genetics influence individual differences based on how individuals respond and react to their environment. The contribution of genetics to psychological differences has been studied in research focused on behavioral genetics (e.g., Plomin, 2000). The second biological influence is the brain structure and neurotransmitters. As Pinel (2003) explains, gene expression determines how cells may develop and how it can function at personal maturity.
The psychodynamic approach assumes that adult behaviour reflects complex dynamic interactions between the conscious and unconscious mind, which are present from birth. Freud, the founder of this approach, believed that our behaviour is powerfully affected by the processes within our conscious mind and psychological disorders in adulthood, are due to problems with we have encountered in our childhood, that have not been solved. Freud purposed that personality is made up of three parts. These parts are the id, superego and ego. He also suggested that our personality is shaped in different times of our childhood, which is known as the psychosexual development.
The psychodynamic perspective focuses on the unconscious mind and how it interacts and affects behaviour whereas the behavioural perspective looks at how the environment as observable stimuli affects behaviour. This essay will look at both perspectives, focusing on the assumptions they make and how they contrast. The psychodynamic perspective was developed by Sigmund Freud in the nineteenth century whilst he was working with patients who showed observable symptoms but lacked any corporal origins. Freud’s treatment of his patients through hypnosis and free association led him to believe that behaviour can be largely influenced by the unconscious mentality. Passer et al.
This paper gives several responses to the idea of genetic or biological determinism from the viewpoint of sociology. Sociology, according to Abercrombie, is the “analysis of the structure of social relationships as constituted by social interaction” (Abercrombie, 2006 p.367), and thus provides a basis for the evaluation of such ideas and theories. Sociologists may argue that rather than genetics, social forces influence the way we act and interact within society. The structure/agency debate in sociology examines the extent to which human behaviour is determined by social
Personality psychologists claimed that one of the most profound challenges is to account for personality development, that’s why they put this into a study whether an individual’s behavior are caused by heredity or the environment, this study is known as the “nature” and “nurture”. First, the nature suggests that human behavior is driven mostly by biology (evolution, genetics, brain chemistry, and hormones). In contrast, the nurture suggests that behavior is driven mostly by psychosocial environment (for example, how we were raised, our peers, the situations we are in at present). Both nature and nurture contribute to who an individual is, but to better comprehend the nature versus nurture debate, we should look at the essential characteristics that make up this controversy. Humans are unique and highly-intricate creatures.