Counselling Theories Essay

585 Words3 Pages
1. Identify four key personality/human development theories. • Behavioural Group • Psychoanalytical Group • Humanistic Group • Post Modern Group 2. Explain the concept of nature versus nurture. The nature versus nurture is an idea on whether a person’s genetic factors (nature) or their environment (nurture) i.e. social class, culture, moral beliefs determine your personality and behaviours. 3. Explain the concept of genetic inheritance and how it applies to counselling. Genetic inheritance theory is the inherited factors that shape our development and personality. 4. Explain Freud’s concept of the unconscious and why it is important in counselling. Freud's theory of the unconscious mind is based on his idea that there is a pool of unpleasant memories that we store outside of the conscious mind. According to Freud, even though the unconscious is hidden it still continues to sway our behaviours. It is important in counselling to have an understanding of the unconscious mind because it is the counsellor main goal to help their client become aware of their unconscious mind therefore helping them to understand and alter that problem behaviour. 5. List the three different aspects of personality identified by Freud. Briefly explain how they relate to each other. • The id – is there from birth. It is instinct. It operates according to the pleasure principles i.e. it likes pleasurable things and avoids pain. If we want a particular things we will do it. For example, if you are in the park and need to go to the toilet, you would go. • The ego – judges is the between the id and the superego. It operates according to the reality principles. It controls the id’s want of instant gratification until a more appropriate outlet can be found. For example, if you are in the park and need to go to the toilet, you would go behind the tree. • The
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