Addiction can be like diabetes or asthma, if you have one of these dieses it can’t be cured, you would have to learn how to handle it so it does not cause problems. The pros of substance abuse can be good for some people, such as drinking a glass a wine, for healthy people, this can be good for their health to decrease the risk of getting heart disease, decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, reduce blood pressure and can also raise good cholesterol and lower bad cholesterol. There are other pros for substance abuse such as relaxation, just to have fun. Maybe they might like the taste or even to increase sociability and also to increase assertiveness. Some people are shy and by using substances such as drugs and alcohol can help them not be nervous to talk or socialize better.
This means their anxiety levels increase, so they keep repeating the compulsive behaviour to reduce anxiety. Trevidi (1996) found people suffering with OCD had low confidence in their own memory. Their non-verbal memory is impaired, although their verbal memory was normal. This maintains OCD because the person is constantly repeating the compulsive behaviours, lowering their anxiety, making it more likely that this behaviour will be shown again in the future. This is then acting as a negative reinforcement.
Volkow gave Ritalin to a group of participants he found that some of the participents enjoyed the experience while others didn’t. He conducted brain scans and found that those who enjoyed the feeling brought on by Ritalin had fewer dopamine receptor. there is research that contradicts the genetic explanation of addiction. Comings found the DRD2 gene present in individual with autism. This is a weakness as it contradict the idea of the DRD2 gene being a reward gene as individuals with autism aren’t seen to be pleasure seeking.
An example of this is Bandura's bobo doll study of aggression with children. This theory is also useful when treating phobias. But as everything this theory also has disadvantages for example, the fact that it focuses too much on the 'nurture' side of the nature/nurture debate. It suggests that all behaviour is learned but cognitive and biological elements have been proved to affect behaviour an example of this is the assumption that people learn behaviour by observing others getting rewarded for certain actions. It’s also difficult to use this theory with adults, as it is more difficult to manipulate them with punishments and rewards unlike
The question remains, can a person really be right- or left-brained? Does the brain really use only one side to control our bodies? [It’s absolutely true that some brain functions occur in one or the other side of the brain. Language tends to be on the left, attention more on the right. But people don’t tend to have a stronger left- or right- sided brain
So, why would kids purposefully cut themselves? The most common reason is control of emotions, according to Lader. “For kids experiencing intense emotions, it can be used to deaden the intensity. For those feeling a sense of numbness, it serves the opposite effect, helping them feel something,” Lader says. Experts say for some adolescents, self-injury indicates other mental health concerns, such as depression.
Critically evaluate the extent to which the placebo effect is just a nuisance variable to be controlled The placebo effect is a simulated or a useless treatment for a medical or mental condition which deceives the patient into thinking it is curing them. Usually, these patients will find their health and wellbeing will improve over time, whether it actually does or they just perceive it doesn’t matter, this is called the placebo effect. Common examples of placebos are sugar pills, homeopathy and ‘psychic surgery’. While it sounds as if the deception is the cause of the patient’s improved health, it has been shown that placebos can have a positive effect on a patient who knows they are being given a placebo, when compared with a control group who received a placebo but were not informed of the deception (Kaptchuk TJ, Friedlander E, Kelley JM, et al, 2010). The most common procedure for using a placebo is when a patient is given a useless pill and is told that the pill will improve their condition.
A psychodynamic therapist would be best for Anissa because the psychodynamic therapist would make her conscious of and resolve any underlying fears. This in turn will eliminate the need for her to convert her anxiety into physical issues which she is currently doing by stating she is feeling numbness in her hands which a doctor cannot find anything wrong. Case Study 4: Karen has dissociative disorder
The second reason why kids don’t want to be babysat is because it can get boring. The solution to this is very simple. If kids get along with the babysitters who have fun with them, then the likelihood of having boring sitters will decrease. The final and most popular reason why kids dislike sitters is because it makes them feel young. Even this problem can be fixed by simply obeying the babysitter.