Conquests and Legacy of Alexander the Great

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Alexander the Great, son of Philip II of Macedonia, was groomed from an early age to rule. Philip II brought him along on various military campaigns and as Alexander grew older he was given control of the cavalry at the Battle of Chaeronea. When Alexander was 20 years old, his father was assassinated thus leaving Alexander to take the role of king. He secured Macedonia’s frontlines, put down the Greek rebellion, then set his eyes on the rest of the world. Alexander started his campaign for the world with 37,000 men, 5,000 of which were cavalry. The king pushed east towards Asia Minor in 334 BCE and had the first confrontation and victory against the Persian Empire at The Battle at Granicus River. By 333 BCE, the western half of Asia Minor was controlled by Alexander. At the Battle of Issus, the Persians outnumbered Alexander and his men. The numerical advantage the Persian’s had was cancelled out because the battle was on a narrow piece of land. By the winter of 332 BCE, Alexander had conquered Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Alexander had continued on and moved into what is known as ancient Mesopotamia in 331 BCE. Alexander’s force fought with the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela and then moved into Babylon. Alexander then moved into the Persian capitals of Susa and Persepolis where the Persian treasuries of gold and silver were kept. In 330 BCE, Darius III was betrayed and killed by one of his own men. Alexander then took the title and office of the Great King of Persia. Starting in 330 BCE, Alexander had moved into what is now Pakistan and by summer of 327 BCE had entered India. In 326 BCE, Alexander’s forces won the Battle of Hydaspes in northwestern India. Alexander wanted to continue moving forward his armies mutinied due to being tired of fighting. The king had no choice but to turn around and go home. The journey back took the army through arid lands and
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