[In the Psychoanalytic chapter of the book Critical Theory Today author Lois Tyson does a wondering job defining Fear of Intimacy.] Tyson states “ Fear of intimacy- the chronic and overpowering that emotional closeness will seriously hurt or destroy us and that we can remain emotionally safe only by remaining at an emotional distance from others at all times.” (16) the way to put this is that we need to pick and choose very carefully who to get close to. There are many people that we often get close to and end up getting hurt because we get to attached. [Next Tyson describes] “Fear of abandonment- the unshakeable belief that our friends and love ones are going to desert us (physical abandonment) or don’t really care about us (emotional abandonment)”. (16) In other worlds she means when you get abandon by friends and
HPSY401 – HEALTH BEHAVIOUR CRITICALLY EVALUATE ANY MODELS ON HOW TO BREAK BAD NEWS Bad news may be defined as “any information which adversely and seriously affects an individual's view of his or her future”. (Placek JT, Eberhardt TL 1996). Buckman (1984) considers bad news to be ‘news that alters a person’s view of the future: drastically and negatively’, Bad news is always, however, in the “eye of the beholder,” such that one cannot estimate the impact of the bad news until one has first determined the recipient's expectations or understanding. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in developing specific educational initiatives to prepare healthcare professionals in breaking bad news. While most initiatives have previously focused on medical staff, some now offer training to a wider range of healthcare professionals (Blok et al, 1999).
An individual who has been a victim of rape instantly feels an interruption of her life and coping skills. As a result her ego can suffer a disruption as well. To achieve integration once again she must find a solution to her lack of trust in men, guilt and paranoia. Two models of therapies being review are client-centered approach and existential therapy. These two models are proposed for measurement the victim’s recuperation and adaptive behavior (HI, E.1978).
Speaking with service users who have a mental health problem can be quite challenging in some cases (Kaprowska, 2005). There is, therefore a heavy dependence for carers and support workers presence to facilitate effective communication. Diggings (2004) Suggests that social workers often speak with service user’ key worker or carer rather than directly with the service user. This can have a negative impact on the service user as they can feel that they are not valued. I identified that I had to refocus discussions because the service user I was working with tended to digress.
The final reason is ‘Maintenance Difficulties’, this is when the relationship could be strained by practical difficulties, such as distance. Rollie and Duck put forward a model of relationship breakdown, which consisted of 6 stages. The first stage was ‘Breakdown’ this is dissatisfaction with your partner; if this is sufficiently great then it progresses onto the next stage. ‘Intrapsychic’, this is characterized by social withdrawal and the disatisfied partner focuses on their partners faults which can cause them to consider possible alternatives. This leads onto the ‘Dyadic Process’, this is where the partners talk about their problems and the causes of their dissatisfaction, however reconliation can take place at this point.
It is further understood that feelings are held in the unconscious mind that are too difficult to be rationalised, to this end defence responses develop to protect us from the painful feelings, and our perceptions of reality become distorted. Angela may now acting out in the world, the same dilemmas she faced as a child, presented in new contexts. “Practitioners are repeatedly hit between the eyes with the unconsciously determined, remarkably repetitive, persistent interpersonal scripts”. (McWilliams 2004 p30) In this model, depression might be viewed as aggression and anger turned inwards. Angela internalises her feelings of anger and disappointment at
MU 10 Additional Questions Session 10 What is meant by Cognitive distortions? How would you describe the skills required for developing and sustaining the counselling relationship? Cognitive distortions are irrational thought patterns that are thought to be responsible for anxiety and depression. Beck did a lot of work on Cognitive distortions and found there to be several common ones such as Filtering this is when a person takes either just the negatives or positives from an experience and then bases all future experiences on these aspects. For example “ I always get stressed when I have to work to a deadline” this person would associate the deadline with failure and would therefore avoid working to a deadline however if they inspected what had led them to fail on a particular project they would certainly see that the deadline had little to nothing to do with the failure.
The therapist attempts to get the clients to identify their irrational beliefs into categories to have concrete labels to work with such as all or nothing thinking, mind reading, over generalizing, discounting, magnification, emotional reasoning, and self-blame. All or nothing thinking is when a client tends to think that if they do not accomplish something perfectly then they have failed all together. Mind reading is when a
I take her comments to heart as a personal attack that I’m either not feeding them enough or that I’m spoiling them too much. I feel it has a lot to do with my low self esteem on my part when it comes to being a parent or on any other topic that I feel insecure about. For others it can be that they are generally defensive all of the time and perceive negative judgments in anything said to them instead of on separate issues. Responding defensively happens when you have a bad perception of the person’s message; you perceived the person doesn’t like/ respect/ trust you and expresses it in their communication. (4) The downfall of responding defensively all of the time though may discourage others from being so honest with their remarks.
There is now an increased interest in the whole area of communication from a psychological perspective. There is a growing awareness that it is necessary to try to understand what it is that 1 leads to failures in communication. Thus, Ferguson writes of the impact of fear, violence and emotional pain on social work practice and the consequent implications for communication. He comments that the Laming report into Victoria Climbié’s death presents rational and naïve solutions to what must be understood as often irrational and inherently complex processes (Ferguson, 2005). Similarly, Rustin comments on the impact of the mental pain on those working with Victoria Climbié.